Sclerites of the Devonian Devonothyonites avis, from Boczarowski (2001). Scale bar = 200 µm

Belongs within: Dendrochirotacea.
Contains: Calclamnidae.

The Cucumariidae are a group of sea cucumbers characterised by the presence of ten branching tentacles. Sclerites of possible cucumariids are known as far back as the middle Ordovician where they are represented by the Staurocaudininae, oval sclerites with a distinct marginal zone and perforated central zone. The Devonian Devonothyoninae possessed trizonate sclerites with a perforated central part and lateral processes, and are also associated with dagger-shaped anal teeth and branching, perforated blades (Boczarowski 2001).

Characters (from O'Loughlin & Alcock 2000): Tentacles multiple-branching (dendritic); body form cylindrical, not U-shaped; calcareous ring present of ten pieces lacking posterior prolongations; cover of imbricating scales entirely or dorsally absent.

    |--Staurocaudininae B01
    |    |--Mercedescaudina Schallreuter 1975 B01
    |    |    |--*M. triperforata (Schallreuter 1968) [=Protocaudina triperforata] B01
    |    |    |--M. langeri Boczarowski 2001 B01
    |    |    `--M. mostleri Schallreuter 1975 B01
    |    `--Staurocaudina Boczarowski 2001 B01
    |         |--S. domborowiana Boczarowski 2001 B01
    |         `--+--*S. canina Boczarowski 2001 B01
    |            `--+--S. rigaudae B01
    |               `--+--S. mortenseni (Deflandre-Rigaud 1946) B01
    |                  `--+--S. khadirensis (Soodan 1977) B01
    |                     `--Staurocucumis Ekman 1927 B01
    `--+--Calclamnidae B01
       |--Palaeohemioedema Boczarowski 2001 [Palaeohemioedemiinae] B01
       |    `--*P. cognata Boczarowski 2001 B01
       `--Devonothyoninae B01
            |--Ballistocucumis Boczarowski 2001 B01
            |    `--*B. bimembris Boczarewski 2001 B01
            |--Tetravirga Frizzell & Exline 1955 B01
            |    |--*T. imperforata Frizzell & Exline 1956 FE66
            |    |--T. curta FE66
            |    |--T. etheridgei FE66
            |    `--T. fordelensis FE66
            `--Devonothyonites Langer 1991 B01
                 |--*D. triangularis Langer 1991 B01
                 |--D. accipitris Boczarowski 2001 B01
                 |--D. avis Boczarowski 2001 B01
                 |--D. exporrigus Boczarowski 2001 B01
                 |--D. polymorphus Boczarowski 2001 B01
                 |--D. spiritus Boczarowski 2001 B01
                 `--D. tudorowiensis Boczarowski 2001 B01

Cucumariidae incertae sedis:
  Paningia B01
    |--P. bispicula Cherbonnier 1965 B01
    `--P. curvata Cherbonnier 1958 B01
  Abyssocucumis Heding 1942 B01
  Cucumariinae B01
    |--Hemioedema Hérouard 1929 B01
    `--Cucumaria Blainville 1834 B01
         |--C. abyssorum Théel 1885 B01
         |--C. albatrossi Cherbonnier 1941 B01
         |--C. chronhjelms FE66
         |--C. crucifera H04
         |--C. denticulata Ekman 1927 B01
         |--C. elongata W79
         |--C. fraudatrix KBC03
         |--C. frondosa HK02
         |--C. georgiana (Lampert 1886) B01
         |--C. hyndmani BK77
         |--C. lactea BK77
         |--C. miniata MK05
         |--C. normani BK77
         |--C. planci BK77
         |--C. saxicola BK77
         |--C. spatha Cherbonnier 1941 B01
         `--C. steineni Ludwig 1898 B01
  Colochirinae B01
    |--Trachythone Studer 1876 B01
    `--Colochirus BM09
         |--C. inornatus H04
         `--C. robustus Östergren 1898 BM09
  Thyone [Thyoninae] F67
    |--T. briareus BK77
    `--T. fusus BK77
  Plesiocolochirus MG-H11
    |--P. australis (Ludwig 1875) MG-H11
    `--P. dispar (Lampert 1889) BM09
  Neocucumella MG-H11
  Neocucumis MG-H11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HK02] Haug, T., A. K. Kjuul, O. B. Styrvold, E. Sandsdalen, Ø. M. Olsen & K. Stensvåg. 2002. Antibacterial activity in Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Echinoidea), Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea), and Asterias rubens (Asteroidea). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 81: 94–102.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[MK05] Matsubara, M., M. Komatsu, T. Araki, S. Asakawa, S. Yokobori, K. Watanabe & H. Wada. 2005. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 598–605.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

O'Loughlin, P. M., & N. Alcock. 2000. The New Zealand Cucumariidae (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 58 (1): 1-24.

[W79] Warner, G. F. 1979. Aggregation in echinoderms. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 375–396. Academic Press: London.

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