The Upper Cretaceous Goniopygus (Tetragoniopygus) supremus, from here.

Belongs within: Euechinoidea.
Contains: Salenioida, Phymosomatoida, Echinoida, Hemicidaroida, Temnopleuroida.

The Echinacea is a clade of regular echinoids in which the teeth of the lantern have developed a keel on the inner surface (stirodont type, modified to camarodont type with a closed foramen magnum in some subgroups). Within the Echinacea, members of the family Arbaciidae possess characteristic ambulacral plates with compound triads composed of a large central plate flanked on either side by a small demi-plate. The Tiarechinidae, a group of small echinoids from the Upper Triassic with a large peristome taking up much of the oral surface, may represent ancestors or relatives of the Arbaciidae (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966): Corona rigid; periproct within apical system; branchial slits present in adult; perignathic girdle complete in adult; lantern present in adult, teeth keeled.

Echinacea [Echinideae]
    |  i. s.: Trichaelina Barrois 1887 (n. d.) A66
    |--+--Salenioida D66
    |  `--+--Phymosomatoida B01
    |     `--+--Echinoida B01
    |        `--+--Hemicidaroida D66
    |           `--Temnopleuroida B01
    `--+--Tiarechinidae FP66 [Plesiocidaroida D66]
       |    |--Tiarechinus Neumayr 1881 [incl. Haueria Laube in Fell & Pawson 1966 (n. n.) non d’Orbigny 1846] FP66
       |    |    `--*T. princeps Neumayr 1881 FP66
       |    `--Lysechinus Gregory 1896 FP66
       |         `--*L. incongruens Gregory 1896 FP66
       `--Arbaciidae [Arbaciadae, Arbacina, Arbacioida, Echinocidaridae] B01
            |--Acropeltis Agassiz 1840 non Montagne 1837 (ICBN) FP66
            |    `--*A. aequituberculata Agassiz 1840 FP66
            |--Acrosaster Lambert 1910 FP66
            |    `--*A. michaleti Lambert 1910 FP66
            |--Arbaciella Mortensen 1910 FP66
            |    `--*A. elegans Mortensen 1910 FP66
            |--Arbia Cooke 1948 FP66
            |    `--*A. aldrichi (Clark 1915) [=Coelopleurus aldrichi] FP66
            |--Atopechinus Thiéry 1928 FP66
            |    `--*A. cellensis Thiéry 1928 FP66
            |--Baueria Noetling 1885 FP66
            |    `--*B. geometrica Noetling 1885 FP66
            |--Cottaldia Desor 1856 [=Cotteaudia Lambert & Thiéry 1910; incl. Heterocosmus Pomel 1883] FP66
            |    `--*C. benettiae (König 1820) [=Echinus benettiae] FP66
            |--Dialithocidaris Agassiz 1898 FP66
            |    `--*D. gemmifera Agassiz 1898 FP66
            |--Habrocidaris Agassiz & Clark 1906 FP66
            |    `--*H. scutata Agassiz 1880 [=Podocidaris scutata] FP66
            |--Heteropodia de Loriol in White 1887 FP66
            |    `--*H. whitei de Loriol in White 1887 FP66
            |--Pleiocyphus Pomel 1883 FP66
            |    `--*P. regularis (Etallon 1862) [=Glypticus regularis] FP66
            |--Podocidaris Agassiz 1869 FP66
            |    `--*P. sculpta Agassiz 1869 FP66
            |--Pygmaeocidaris Döderlein 1905 FP66
            |    `--*P. prionigera (Agassiz 1879) [=Podocidaris prionigera] FP66
            |--Tetrapygus Agassiz 1841 [incl. Echinocidaris Duncan 1889 non Desmoulins 1835] FP66
            |    `--*T. niger (Molina 1782) [=Echinus niger] FP66
            |--Coelopleurus Agassiz 1840 (see below for synonymy) FP66
            |    |--C. coronalis (Leske 1778) [=Cidaris coronalis; incl. *Co. equis Agassiz 1840] FP66
            |    |--C. maculatus Agassiz & Clark 1907 MG-H11
            |    `--C. pratti [=*Sykesia pratti] FP66
            |--Codiopsis Agassiz 1840 (see below for synonymy) FP66
            |    |--*C. doma (Desmarest 1825) [=Echinus doma] FP66
            |    |--C. alpina [=*Pseudocodiopsis alpina] FP66
            |    `--C. regalis FP66
            |--Glypticus Agassiz 1840 [incl. Hologlyptus Pomel 1883 (preoc.), Panglyptus Lambert & Thiéry 1914] FP66
            |    |--*G. hieroglyphicus (Goldfuss 1826) [=Echinus hieroglyphicus] FP66
            |    |--G. integer FP66
            |    |--G. kaufmanni [=*Panglyptus kaufmanni] FP66
            |    `--G. sulcatus FP66
            |--Arbacia Gray 1835 [=Echinocidaris Desmoulin 1835; incl. Agarites Agassiz 1841, Anapesus Holmes 1860] FP66
            |    |--A. lixula (Linnaeus 1758) BK77, FP66 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |--‘Echinocidaris’ aequituberculata [=Plutellus aequituberculatus] H04
            |    |--A. punctulata (Lamarck 1816) T72, FP66 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |--A. stellata F67
            |    `--A. waccamaw FP66
            |--Magnosia Michelin 1858 [=Tuberculina Ebray 1858] FP66
            |    |--M. (Magnosia) FP66
            |    |    |--*M. (M.) nodulosa (Goldfuss 1826) [=Echinus nodulosus, *Tuberculina nodulosa] FP66
            |    |    |--M. (M.) peroni FP66
            |    |    `--M. (M.) pilos FP66
            |    `--M. (Eucosmus Agassiz 1846) [=Eucosmechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1914] FP66
            |         |--M. (*E.) decoratus (Agassiz 1846) [=*Eucosmus decoratus, *Eucosmechinus decoratus] FP66
            |         `--M. (E.) meslei FP66
            `--Goniopygus Agassiz 1838 [incl. Cyphopygus Pomel 1883, Polygoniopygus Valette 1906] FP66
                 |--G. (Goniopygus) FP66
                 |    |--*G. (G.) peltatus Agassiz 1838 FP66
                 |    |--G. (G.) arnaudi FP66
                 |    |--G. (G.) major FP66
                 |    |--G. (G.) noguesi FP66
                 |    `--G. (G.) pillati [=*Polygoniopygus pillati] FP66
                 `--G. (Tetragoniopygus Fell & Pawson 1966) FP66
                      |--G. (*T.) supremus Hawkins 1924 FP66
                      `--G. (T.) minor FP66

Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus 1758) BK77, FP66 [=Echinus lixula FP66; incl. A. aequituberculata BK77, Cidaris pustulosa Leske 1778 FP66, *A. pustulosa FP66, *Echinocidaris pustulosus FP66]

Arbacia punctulata (Lamarck 1816) T72, FP66 [=Echinus punctulatus FP66, *Agarites punctulatus FP66; incl. *Anapesus carolinus Holmes 1860 FP66]

Codiopsis Agassiz 1840 [incl. Hemicodiopsis Pomel 1883, Piliscus Pomel 1883 non Loven 1856, Pseudocodiopsis Valette 1906] FP66

Agassiz 1840 [incl. Coeloclypeus Walther 1893 (n. n.), Delbosia Pomel 1883, Keraiophorus Michelin 1862, Koeraiaphorus (l. c.), Murravechinus Tate 1894 (n. n.), Phrissopleurus Pomel 1883, Spileccia Hebert & Munier-Chalmas 1878 (n. n.), Sykesia Pomel 1883] FP66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Anon. 1966. Doubtful nominal genera of echinoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U633. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[D66] Durham, J. W. 1966. Echinoids—classification. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U270–U295. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FP66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[T72] Tendal, O. S. 1972. A monograph of the Xenophyophoria (Rhizopodea, Protozoa). Galathea Report 12: 7–99.

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