Antedon bifida, photographed by Bernard Picton.

Belongs within: Antedonacea.

The Antedoninae are a group of feather stars with a relatively large base to the central calyx, and relatively short cirri without dorsal spines. Most recognised genera are recent, with a single fossil genus Palaeantedon recognised from the Eocene to the Quaternary (Wienberg Rasmussen 1978).

See also: The Antedoninae: (relatively) big-bellied feather stars.

Characters (from Wienberg Rasmussen 1978): Centrodorsal discoidal to low hemispherical or rounded subconical, generally with a small cirrus-free, smooth, rugose or tuberculate dorsal area. Cirrus sockets closely placed, often small, forming two to three irregular circles on low centrodorsals, three or four regularly alternating circles in higher centrodorsals and up to six circles in conical centrodorsals; exceptionally up to 100 sockets including obsolete sockets of dorsal area. Cirri 10 to 40, rather short, generally with less than 20 cirrals, dorsally rounded without dorsal spines or processes and never carinate. Centrodorsal cavity moderate. Shallow, small radial pits may be present in specimens of Antedon bifida. Basal rosette, no rod-shaped basals. Radials generally follow edge of centrodorsal without free surface in midradial area, and may be further restricted, not covering radial margin of centrodorsal. Articular face of radial gently sloping, wider than high. Ventral muscular fossae moderate, slightly larger than interarticular ligament fossae, and broadly rounded, more or less four-sided, generally wider than high, separated by broad midradial ridge with median furrow, and shallow notch. Synarthrial articularton at brachials 1-2 flat or slightly embayed. In a few specimens of Antedon further division at secundibrachs 2 or secundibrachs 4 has been found in some of the arms.

    |--Andrometra Clark 1917 WR78
    |    `--*A. psyche (Clark 1908) [=Antedon psyche; incl. Toxometra aequipinna Gislén 1922] WR78
    |--Annametra Clark 1923 WR78
    |    `--*A. occidentalis (Clark 1915) [=Cominia occidentalis] WR78
    |--Argyrometra Clark 1917 WR78
    |    `--*A. crispa (Clark 1908) [=Iridometra crispa] WR78
    |--Euantedon Clark 1912 WR78
    |    `--*E. moluccana (Clark 1912) [=Antedon moluccana] WR78
    |--Eumetra Clark 1908 WR78
    |    `--*E. chamberlaini Clark 1908 WR78
    |--Iridometra Clark 1908 WR78
    |    `--*I. adrestine (Clark 1907) [=Antedon adrestine; incl. I. melpomene Clark 1911] WR78
    |--Mastigometra Clark 1908 WR78
    |    `--*M. flagellifera Clark 1908 WR78
    |--Dorometra Clark 1917 WR78
    |    |--*D. nana (Hartlaub 1890) [=Antedon nana] WR78
    |    `--D. clymene Clark 1917 MG-H11
    |--Toxometra Clark 1911 [incl. Monilimetra Clark 1938] WR78
    |    |--*T. paupera Clark 1911 WR78
    |    `--‘*Monilimetra’ nomima Clark 1938 WR78
    |--Palaeantedon Gislén 1924 [Palaeantedonidae] WR78
    |    |--*P. soluta (Pomel 1887) [=Antedon solutus] WR78
    |    |--P. ambigua WR78
    |    |--P. caroliniana WR78
    |    `--P. pannoica WR78
    `--Antedon de Freminville 1811 (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy) WR78
         |--A. bifida (Pennant 1777) LR06 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--A. b. bifida BK77
         |    `--A. b. maroccana BK77
         |--A. adriatica BK77
         |--*Repometra’ arabica Clark 1937 WR78
         |--*Kallispongia’ archeri Wright 1877 [incl. Antedon loveni Bell 1882, *Compsometra loveni] WR78
         |--A. avenionensis WR78
         |    |--A. a. avenionensis WR78
         |    `--A. a. minor Nicolas 1898 WR78
         |--‘Pentacrinus’ europaeus Thompson 1827 [=*Hibernula europaeus, *Phytocrinus europaeus] WR78
         |--A. incommoda Bell 1888 MG-H11
         |--A. mediterranea (Lamarck 1816) LR06 [=Comatula mediterranea BK77]
         |--A. petasus BK77
         |--*Ganymeda’ pulchella Gray 1834 WR78
         `--A. serrata GD00 [=Compsometra serrata F67]

Antedon de Freminville 1811 (nom. cons.) [=Cintedon (l. c.); incl. Compsometra Clark 1908, Decacnemos Linck ex Bronn 1825, Ganymeda Gray 1834, Hibernula Fleming 1828, Phytocrinus de Blainville 1830, Kallispongia Wright 1877, Repometra Clark 1937; Antedoninae] WR78

Antedon bifida (Pennant 1777) LR06 [=Asterias bifida WR78; incl. Comatula decacnemos BK77, Alecto europaea BK77, *Antedon gorgonia de Freminville 1811 WR78]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[LR06] Lanterbecq, D., G. W. Rouse, M. C. Milinkovitch & I. Eeckhaut. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate multiple independent emergences of parasitism in Myzostomida (Protostomia). Systematic Biology 55 (2): 208–227.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[WR78] Wienberg Rasmussen, H. 1978. Articulata. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 3 pp. T813–T927. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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