Tipulomorpha

Male winter crane fly Trichocera garretti, from Alexander (1981).


Belongs within: Diptera.
Contains: Tipulidae.

The Tipulomorpha are a clade of flies uniting the crane flies (Tipulidae) with the winter crane flies (Trichoceridae). Modern members of the lineage lack mandibles, and their wings have R2 joining R1, the stem of M tending to align with M3+4, and 2A very short and submarginal (Blagoderov et al. 2002).

<==Tipulomorpha WT11
    |--Vladiptera [Vladipteridae] BLM02
    |    `--V. kovalevi BLM02
    `--+--Tipulidae WT11
       `--+--Gnomuscidae GE05
          `--Trichoceridae [Petauristidae, Trichoceroidea] WT11
               |  i. s.: Mailotrichocera jurassica BLM02
               |--Kawasemyia [Kawasemyiinae] A81
               |--Paracladura [Paracladurinae] K09
               |    `--P. trichoptera A81
               `--Trichocerinae A81
                    |--Diazosma hirtipennis A81
                    |--Nothotrichocera cingulata A81, CM91
                    `--Trichocera K09
                         |  i. s.: T. annulata CM91
                         |         T. brevicornis WT11
                         |         T. columbiana M90
                         |         T. gigantea A81
                         |         T. maculipennis A81
                         |         T. mexicana K09
                         |         T. regelationis A81
                         |         T. saltator K09
                         `--T. (Metatrichocera) A81
                              |--T. (M.) alexanderi A81
                              |--T. (M.) colei A81
                              |--T. (M.) garretti A81
                              |--T. (M.) mackenzie A81
                              |--T. (M.) salmani A81
                              `--T. (M.) ursamajor A81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A81] Alexander, C. P. 1981. Trichoceridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 301–304. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K09] Krzemińska, E. 2009. Trichoceridae (winter crane flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 337–339. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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