Curculionidae

Cionus hortulanus, copyright Lukas Jonaitis.


Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Diabathrariinae, Gonipterinae, Cleoninae, Alcidides, Hyperinae, Sitona, Cyclominae, Entiminae, Scolytinae, Cossoninae, Conoderinae, Cryptorhynchinae, Ceutorhynchinae, Molytinae, Lixinae, Curculioninae, Mesoptillinae, Storeinae, Baridinae, Tychiini.

The Curculionidae are the largest family of weevils. Members of the family typically possess an elongate rostrum, though this is relatively short in some subfamilies such as the Entiminae, and absent in others the Scolytinae. Most curculionids are phytophagous, with the larvae feeding internally in plant tissues (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Perhaps not surprisingly for such a large group, the division of the Curculionidae between subfamilies has varied significantly between authors. For instance, some authors would combine the Orobitidinae, Ceuthorhynchinae and Conoderinae into an expanded Baridinae on the basis of shared characters such as fusion of the metepisternum and metepimeron, and an enlarged ascending mesepimeron (Davis 2009). Gillett et al. (2014) identified five potential main lineages within the Curculionidae. The aquatic weevils of the cosmopolitan genus Bagous may represent the sister group to other curculionids. Bagous species are able to swim underwater and feed on freshwater plants; they breath using air extracted from plant stems. A second clade includes the subfamilies Hyperinae, Cyclominae and Entiminae; members of this clade all have relatively short and broad rostra and are consequently referred to as the broad-nosed weevils. The Scolytinae and Cossoninae form successive outgroups to the fifth clade identified by Gillett et al. (2014), including relatives of the subfamily Curculioninae. Relationships within this last clade remain poorly supported, and a number of previously recognised subfamilies may not be monophyletic.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Usually moderately to strongly convex, robust, heavily sclerotised, often clothed with scales or bristles. Head more or less produced in front of eyes to form rostrum, which is usually much longer than broad; antennae geniculate with long scape and more or less compact club; labrum absent; maxillae reduced with short rigid palps; gular sutures fused; penultimate tarsal segment usually minute and concealed at base of lobed third segment. Larvae more or less C-shaped, very lightly sclerotised, with minute antennae and robust mandibles.

<==Curculionidae [Gonatoceri, Phanerognatha] MW15
    |--Notaris [Notarinae, Notarini] MW15
    |    `--N. aethiops C01
    |--Bagous Germar 1817 M94 [Bagoinae GC-P14]
    |    |--*B. binodulus [=Curculio binodulus] M94
    |    |--B. affinis Hustache 1926 B14
    |    |--B. australasiae Blackburn 1894 M94
    |    |--B. minutus C01
    |    `--B. transversus LeConte 1876 D09
    `--+--+--+--Hyperinae GC-P14
       |  |  `--Sitona GC-P14
       |  `--+--Cyclominae GC-P14
       |     `--Entiminae GC-P14
       `--+--+--Porthetes MW15
          |  `--Scolytinae MW15
          `--+--Cossoninae GC-P14
             `--+--Conoderinae GC-P14
                `--+--+--+--Cryptorhynchinae GC-P14
                   |  |  `--Zygopini [Zygopides, Zygopinae] GC-P14
                   |  |       |--Peltophorus GC-P14
                   |  |       `--Cylindrocopturus D09
                   |  |            |--C. adspersus (LeConte 1876) D09
                   |  |            `--C. operculatus (Say 1824) D09
                   |  `--+--Ceutorhynchinae GC-P14
                   |     `--Cionus [Cionini] GC-P14
                   |          |--C. blattariae L02
                   |          |--C. ferrugatus M86
                   |          |--C. griseus GC-P14
                   |          |--C. hortulanus (Fourcroy 1785) HF03
                   |          |--C. olens GC-P14
                   |          |--C. scrophulariae (Linnaeus 1758) HF03
                   |          |--C. thapsus (Fabricius 1792) HF03
                   |          |--C. tissoni Reitter 1906 HF03
                   |          `--C. wittei Kirsch 1781 HF03
                   `--+--+--+--Sympiezoscelus MW15
                      |  |  |--Molytinae GC-P14
                      |  |  `--Acalyptus [Acalyptini] GC-P14
                      |  `--+--+--Lixinae GC-P14
                      |     |  `--Curculioninae GC-P14
                      |     `--Hylobiini GC-P14
                      |          |--Heilipodus argentinicus ML05
                      |          `--Hylobius M94
                      |               |--H. abietis C01
                      |               |--H. pinastri C01
                      |               `--H. transversovittatus MB93
                      `--+--+--Mesoptillinae GC-P14
                         |  `--+--Storeini GC-P14
                         |     `--Mecinini GC-P14
                         |          |--Miarus campanulae GC-P14, C01
                         |          `--Mecinus HF03
                         |               |--M. circulatus (Marsham 1802) HF03
                         |               |--M. pascuorum (Gyllenhal 1813) HF03
                         |               `--M. pirazzolii (Stierlin 1867) HF03
                         `--+--+--Lobotrachelus Schoenherr 1838 M94 [Lobotrachelini GC-P14]
                            |  |    |--L. exilis Pascoe 1885 M86
                            |  |    |--L. stigma Pascoe 1873 M86
                            |  |    `--L. troglodytes (Desbrochers 1891) D09
                            |  `--Coptonotini [Coptonotinae] GC-P14
                            |       |--Protohylastes annosus W86
                            |       |--Protoplatypus vetulus W86
                            |       |--Mecopelmus zeteki W86
                            |       |--Schedlarius mexicanus W86
                            |       `--Coptonotus cyclops W86
                            `--+--Camptorhinini [Camptorhinides] GC-P14
                               |    |--Pachyonyx affaber M78
                               |    `--Camptorrhinus Schoenherr 1826 M78, M94
                               |         |--C. albizziae M94
                               |         |--C. dorsalis Boisd. 1835 M86
                               |         `--C. erectisquamis (Marsh 1928) HF03
                               `--+--Baridinae GC-P14
                                  `--Tychiini GC-P14

Curculionidae incertae sedis:
  Crisius E02
    |--C. longulus WH02
    |--C. ornatus WH02
    |--C. posticalis WH02
    `--C. ventralis (Broun 1885) E02
  Camptoscapus planiusculus (Broun 1880) E02
  Microtribus huttoni E02
  Hydramphus tuberculatus WH02
  Ectopsis ferrugalis WH02
  Megacolabus garviensis WH02
  Tychanus verrucosus WH02
  Tychanopais WH02
    |--T. fougeri WH02
    `--T. tuberosus ED04
  Didymus impexus WH02
  Clypeolus cineraceus WH02
  Echinopeplus insolitus WH02
  Epitimetes WH02
    |--E. cuprealis WH02
    |--E. grisealis WH02
    `--E. lutosus WH02
  Sargon suturalis WH02
  Sympedius WH02
  Stephanocleonus fossulatus Z02
  Hexarthrum exiguum Z02
  Dermothrius brevipennis ED04
  Rachidiscodes ED04
  Germainiellus MC94
  Sericotrogus subaenescens WFS04
  Acanthothorax Gaede 1832 BG06
  Tigones caudata T27
  Hoplocneme hookeri T27
  Empaeotes censorius T27
  Bothynoderes brevirostris G89
  Xanthochelus postumus Faust 1883 G89
  Amblyrhinus G89
  Corigetus G89
  Alcidodes MHG04
    |--A. bubo (Fabricius 1801) [=Rhynchaenus bubo] M94
    `--A. leeuweni MHG04
  Odoiporus longicollis MHG04
  Stenoscelis brevis W86
  Oodemas O94
  Rhyncogonus O94
  Phytonomus AN-A04
    |--P. lilliputanus Lucas 1847 E12
    |--P. plantaginis A71
    `--P. variabilis AN-A04
  Calacalles (Crateracalles Stüben 2004) F05
    |--C. (*C.) droueti (Crotch 1867) [=Acalles droueti] F05
    `--C. (C.) azoricus Stüben 2004 F05
  Kyklioacalles F05
    |--K. almadensis Stüben 2004 F05
    |--K. almadophilus Stüben 2004 F05
    `--K. anthyllis Stüben 2004 F05
  Onyxacalles maginaensis Stüben 2004 F05
  Othorhinus cylindrirostris ZS10
  Rhynchodes G84
  Homalinotus Schoenherr 1826 WL09, C92 [=Homalonotus Agassiz 1846 nec Koenig 1825 nec Agassiz 1846 C92]
    `--H. coriaceus WL09
  Mylacus rotundatus C01
  Ptochus deportatus C01
  Brachysomus echinatus C01
  Strophosomus obesus C01
  Psalidium maxillosum C01
  Chlorophanus viridis C01
  Alophus C01
    |--A. quadriguttatus C01
    |--A. rudis [incl. A. rudis var. gibbulosus] C01
    `--A. triguttatus C01
  Grypidius equiseti C01
  Amalus haemorrhous C01
  Ceuthorrhynchidius C01
    |--C. barnevillei C01
    |--C. floralis C01
    |--C. melanarius C01
    `--C. nigrinus C01
  Tapinotus sellatus C01
  Miccotrogus picirostris C01
  Cnemargus Schönherr 1837 CW92a
  Merodontus Jekel 1854 CW92b
  Neocnemis Crotch 1867 CW92c
  Rhynchaenus Clairville 1798 M94 [Rhynchaeninae LB91]
    |--R. populi L02
    `--R. saltator M94
  Diabathrariinae LB91
  Gonipterinae LB91
  Orobitidinae [Orobitini] D09
    |--Parorobitis D09
    |    |--P. gibbus Korotyaev, O’Brien & Konstantinov 2000 D09
    |    `--P. minutus B14
    `--Orobitis B14
         |--O. cyanea B14
         `--O. nigrina B14
  Cleoninae LB91
  Alcidides M86
  Eremnides M86
    |--Platytrachelus chloris Pascoe 1870 M86
    |--Oops pistor Germ. 1848 M86
    `--Pephricus M86
         |--P. echymis Pascoe 1870 M86
         `--P. rattulus Pascoe 1882 M86
  Hipporrhinus [Hipporhinides, Hipporhininae] M86
    |--H. bulbifer B35
    |--H. duponti Boisduval 1835 B35
    `--H. heeri B14
  Rhyparosomides M86
    |--Zephryne sordida Pascoe 1870 M86
    `--Dysostines M86
         |--D. cellaris Pascoe 1873 M86
         |--D. fuligineus Pascoe 1870 M86
         |--D. hoplostethus Pascoe 1870 M86
         |--D. pilipes Pascoe 1870 M86
         |--D. pustulosus Pascoe 1870 M86
         `--D. valgus Pascoe 1870 M86
  Cylindrorhinides M86
    |--Pantopoeus cervinus M86
    |--Peripagis rufipes Pascoe 1870 M86
    |--Lycosura bispinosa Pascoe 1875 M86
    |--Decienus sphasodes Pascoe 1873 M86
    `--Ocynoma M86
         |--O. antennata Pascoe 1873 M86
         `--O. cordipennis Pascoe 1873 M86
  Tanyrhynchides M86
    |--Synatonyx ovatus Wollast. 1853 M86
    `--Xynaea saginata Pascoe 1865 M86
  Rhinomacer L02 [Rhinomacerides M86]
    `--R. curculionoides L02
  Othippia [Isorhynchides] M86
    `--O. guttula Pascoe 1885 M86
  Bronchus Z93
  Dinomorphus [Dinomorphinae] Z93
  Brotheinae Z93
  Byrsopinae Z93
  Stenocerus garnotii B35
  Lagostomus australis B35
  Elytrurus B35
    |--E. cinctus Dupont in Boisduval 1835 B35
    `--E. lapeyrousei Boisduval 1835 B35
  Zygops boisduvalii Dupont in Boisduval 1835 B35
  Brachyrhinus Latreille 1802 L02 [Brachyrhininae H02]
    |--B. ligustici (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio ligustici L02]
    |--B. lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio lineatus L02]
    |--B. niger [=Curculio niger] L02
    `--B. pyri (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio pyri L02]
  Rhyssematus AT01
  Artipus floridanus AT01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

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[BG06] Bretfeld, G., & A. Greigel. 2006. Acanthoneelidus nom. n. for the genus Acanthothorax Bredfeld & Griegel 1999 from northwestern Poland (Insecta, Collembola, Neelidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 46.

[CW92a] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992a. Aphodiinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 81–105. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[CW92b] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992b. Scarabaeinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 106–173. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[CW92c] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992c. Dynastinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 383–425. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1–136.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[ED04] Ewers, R. M., & R. K. Didham. 2004. A first assessment of New Zealand beetles restricted to large forest areas. Weta 27: 33–40.

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[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

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[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

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[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: an empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 17–63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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