Curculionidae

Lily weevil Brachycerus ornatus, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Gonipterinae, Cleoninae, Alcidides, Erirhininae, Platypodinae, Dryophthorinae, Sitona, Hyperinae, Cyclominae, Entiminae, Scolytinae, Cossoninae, Conoderinae, Cionus, Cryptorhynchinae, Molytinae, Lixinae, Curculioninae, Mesoptillinae, Tychiini.

The Curculionidae are the largest family of weevils, distinguished by geniculate (elbowed) antennae with an elongate scape. Members of the family typically possess an elongate rostrum, though this is relatively short in some subfamilies such as the Entiminae, and absent in others the Scolytinae. Most curculionids are phytophagous, with the larvae feeding internally in plant tissues (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Perhaps not surprisingly for such a large group, the division of the Curculionidae between subfamilies has varied significantly between authors. A basal grade of taxa, including the subfamilies Erirhininae, Platypodinae, Dryophthorinae and Brachycerus, retains features of the male genitalia in common with other non-curculionid weevils and has therefore been excluded from the Curculionidae sensu stricto by some authors. Brachycerus species are often large and colourful weevils found in Africa and Eurasia, some of which are serious pests of Allium crops (Bouchard 2014).

Gillett et al. (2014) identified four potential main lineages within the Curculionidae sensu stricto. The subfamilies Hyperinae, Cyclominae and Entiminae form a clade of species with relatively short and broad rostra, consequently referred to as the broad-nosed weevils. The Scolytinae and Cossoninae form successive outgroups to a clade including the subfamily Curculioninae and related taxa. Members of this last clade generally have relatively long and slender rostra. Relationships within the curculionine clade remain poorly supported and a number of previously recognised subfamilies may not be monophyletic. Members of this clade include the Hylobiini, characterised by dorsally visible antennal insertions, fore tibiae that are compressed and bisinuate on the inner margin, and femora that are usually dentate on the inner margin (Marvaldi & Lanteri 2005). The Coptonotini are a small group of tropical weevils with a reduced rostrum, very similar in overall habitus to the Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Wood 1986).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Usually moderately to strongly convex, robust, heavily sclerotised, often clothed with scales or bristles. Head more or less produced in front of eyes to form rostrum, which is usually much longer than broad; antennae geniculate with long scape and more or less compact club; labrum absent; maxillae reduced with short rigid palps; gular sutures fused; penultimate tarsal segment usually minute and concealed at base of lobed third segment. Larvae more or less C-shaped, very lightly sclerotised, with minute antennae and robust mandibles.

<==Curculionidae (see below for synonymy) L20
    |--+--Erirhininae B14
    |  `--Brachycerus [Brachycerinae] GC-P14
    |       |--B. algirus L02
    |       |--B. monachus M94
    |       |--B. muricatus B14
    |       |--B. ornatus (Drury 1773) B14
    |       |--B. scutellaris Chevrolat 1846 E12
    |       |--B. semituberculatus Chevrolat 1846 E12
    |       `--B. tetanicus Chevrolat 1847 E12
    `--+--+--Platypodinae GC-P14
       |  `--Dryophthorinae GC-P14
       `--+--+--+--Sitona GC-P14
          |  |  `--Hyperinae GC-P14
          |  `--+--Cyclominae GC-P14
          |     `--Entiminae GC-P14
          `--+--+--Porthetes MW15
             |  `--Scolytinae MW15
             `--+--Cossoninae GC-P14
                `--+--Conoderinae GC-P14
                   `--+--+--Cionus GC-P14
                      |  `--Cryptorhynchinae GC-P14
                      `--+--+--+--Sympiezoscelus MW15
                         |  |  |--Molytinae GC-P14
                         |  |  `--Acalyptus [Acalyptini] GC-P14
                         |  `--+--+--Lixinae GC-P14
                         |     |  `--Curculioninae GC-P14
                         |     `--Hylobiini [Hylobiides, Hylobiinae] GC-P14
                         |          |--Heilipodus argentinicus ML05
                         |          `--Hylobius M94
                         |               |--H. abietis C01
                         |               |--H. pinastri C01
                         |               `--H. transversovittatus MB93
                         `--+--Mesoptillinae GC-P14
                            `--+--Coptonotini [Coptonotinae] GC-P14
                               |    |--Protohylastes annosus W86
                               |    |--Protoplatypus vetulus W86
                               |    |--Mecopelmus zeteki W86
                               |    |--Schedlarius mexicanus W86
                               |    `--Coptonotus cyclops W86
                               `--+--Tychiini GC-P14
                                  `--Camptorhinini [Camptorhinides] GC-P14
                                       |--Pachyonyx affaber M78
                                       `--Camptorrhinus Schoenherr 1826 M78, M94
                                            |--C. albizziae M94
                                            |--C. dorsalis Boisd. 1835 Mas86
                                            `--C. erectisquamis (Marsh 1928) HF03

Curculionidae incertae sedis:
  Crisius E02
    |--C. longulus WH02
    |--C. ornatus WH02
    |--C. posticalis WH02
    `--C. ventralis (Broun 1885) E02
  Camptoscapus planiusculus (Broun 1880) E02
  Microtribus huttoni E02
  Hydramphus tuberculatus WH02
  Ectopsis ferrugalis WH02
  Megacolabus garviensis WH02
  Tychanus verrucosus WH02
  Tychanopais WH02
    |--T. fougeri WH02
    `--T. tuberosus ED04
  Didymus impexus WH02
  Clypeolus cineraceus WH02
  Echinopeplus insolitus WH02
  Epitimetes WH02
    |--E. cuprealis WH02
    |--E. grisealis WH02
    `--E. lutosus WH02
  Sargon suturalis WH02
  Sympedius WH02
  Stephanocleonus fossulatus Z02
  Dermothrius brevipennis ED04
  Rachidiscodes ED04
  Germainiellus MC94
  Sericotrogus subaenescens WFS04
  Acanthothorax Gaede 1832 BG06
  Tigones caudata T27
  Hoplocneme hookeri T27
  Empaeotes censorius T27
  Bothynoderes G89
    |--B. albidus R13
    `--B. brevirostris G89
  Xanthochelus postumus Faust 1883 G89
  Amblyrhinus G89
  Corigetus G89
  Alcidodes MHG04
    |--A. bubo (Fabricius 1801) [=Rhynchaenus bubo] M94
    `--A. leeuweni MHG04
  Odoiporus longicollis MHG04
  Oodemas O94
  Rhyncogonus O94
  Phytonomus AN-A04
    |--P. lilliputanus Lucas 1847 E12
    |--P. plantaginis A71
    `--P. variabilis AN-A04
  Calacalles (Crateracalles Stüben 2004) F05
    |--C. (*C.) droueti (Crotch 1867) [=Acalles droueti] F05
    `--C. (C.) azoricus Stüben 2004 F05
  Kyklioacalles F05
    |--K. almadensis Stüben 2004 F05
    |--K. almadophilus Stüben 2004 F05
    `--K. anthyllis Stüben 2004 F05
  Onyxacalles maginaensis Stüben 2004 F05
  Rhynchodes G84
  Homalinotus Schoenherr 1826 WL09, C92 [=Homalonotus Agassiz 1846 nec Koenig 1825 nec Agassiz 1846 C92]
    `--H. coriaceus WL09
  Mylacus rotundatus C01
  Ptochus deportatus C01
  Brachysomus echinatus C01
  Strophosomus obesus C01
  Psalidium maxillosum C01
  Chlorophanus viridis C01
  Alophus C01
    |--A. quadriguttatus C01
    |--A. rudis [incl. A. rudis var. gibbulosus] C01
    `--A. triguttatus C01
  Grypidius equiseti C01
  Amalus haemorrhous C01
  Ceuthorrhynchidius C01
    |--C. barnevillei C01
    |--C. floralis C01
    |--C. melanarius C01
    `--C. nigrinus C01
  Miccotrogus picirostris C01
  Cnemargus Schönherr 1837 CW92a
  Merodontus Jekel 1854 CW92b
  Neocnemis Crotch 1867 CW92c
  Rhynchaenus Clairville 1798 M94 [Rhynchaeninae LB91]
    |--R. populi L02
    `--R. saltator M94
  Gonipterinae LB91
  Cleoninae LB91
  Alcidides Mas86
  Eremnides Mas86
    |--Platytrachelus chloris Pascoe 1870 Mas86
    |--Oops pistor Germ. 1848 Mas86
    `--Pephricus Mas86
         |--P. echymis Pascoe 1870 Mas86
         `--P. rattulus Pascoe 1882 Mas86
  Hipporrhinus [Hipporhinides, Hipporhininae] Mas86
    |--H. bulbifer B35
    |--H. duponti Boisduval 1835 B35
    `--H. heeri B14
  Rhyparosomides Mas86
    |--Zephryne sordida Pascoe 1870 Mas86
    `--Dysostines Mas86
         |--D. cellaris Pascoe 1873 Mas86
         |--D. fuligineus Pascoe 1870 Mas86
         |--D. hoplostethus Pascoe 1870 Mas86
         |--D. pilipes Pascoe 1870 Mas86
         |--D. pustulosus Pascoe 1870 Mas86
         `--D. valgus Pascoe 1870 Mas86
  Cylindrorhinides Mas86
    |--Pantopoeus cervinus Mas86
    |--Peripagis rufipes Pascoe 1870 Mas86
    |--Lycosura bispinosa Pascoe 1875 Mas86
    |--Decienus sphasodes Pascoe 1873 Mas86
    `--Ocynoma Mas86
         |--O. antennata Pascoe 1873 Mas86
         `--O. cordipennis Pascoe 1873 Mas86
  Tanyrhynchides Mas86
    |--Synatonyx ovatus Wollast. 1853 Mas86
    `--Xynaea saginata Pascoe 1865 Mas86
  Bronchus Z93
  Dinomorphus [Dinomorphinae] Z93
  Brotheinae Z93
  Byrsopinae Z93
  Stenocerus garnotii B35
  Lagostomus australis B35
  Elytrurus B35
    |--E. cinctus Dupont in Boisduval 1835 B35
    `--E. lapeyrousei Boisduval 1835 B35
  Brachyrhinus Latreille 1802 L02 [Brachyrhininae H02]
    |--B. incanus (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Curculio incanus G20]
    |--B. ligustici (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio ligustici L02]
    |--B. lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio lineatus L02]
    |--B. niger [=Curculio niger] L02
    `--B. pyri (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Curculio pyri L02]
  Rhyssematus AT01
  Artipus floridanus AT01
  Cylindrocopterus G05
  Styphlus penicillus SKR96
  Eubrychius RD77
  Litodactylus RD77
  Brachybamus Z93
  Penestes Z93
  Anathymus singularis Pascoe 1885 Mac86
  Ampharthropelma P92
  Anchorthorrhinus P92
  Archimetrioxena P92
  Dorytomus P92
  Electrotribus P92
  Erirhinoides P92
  Isalcidodes P92
  Necrodryophthorus P92
  Paleopissodes P92
  Pseudostyphlus P92
  Succinacalles P92
  Thryogenosoma P92

Curculionidae [Brachyceridae, Calandraeides, Calandridae, Calandrides, Calandrina, Calendridae, Calendrinae, Cryptopygi, Dryophthoridae. Erirhinidae, Gonatoceri, Phanerognatha, Rhynchophoridae, Rhynchophorides] L20

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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Last updated: 25 April 2021.

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