Specimens of Orthalicus zebra, copyright Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Placostylinae, Bothriembryon.

The Orthalicoidea are a group of relatively high-spired land snails. Most families of orthalicoids are found in the Americas (particularly the Neotropics) but members of the family Bothriembryontidae are found in Australasia (as well as in southern South America). The latter family is also represented in southern Africa by a single genus, Prestonella. Within the Neotropical fauna, the Odontostomidae differ from other families in possessing dents or lamellae narrowing the aperture. The protoconch is smooth in Amphibulima and Orthalicidae but sculptured in other families. Orthalicidae are characterised by a conical penis bearing an appendix; in other families the penis is cylindrical and simple. Amphibulima is distinctive in possessing an heterurethrous rather than sigmurethrous reproductive system. The Megaspiridae are characterised by turreted shells with numerous short whorls.

Characters (from Herbert & Mitchell 2009): Genitalia with accessory structures absent; phallus complex extremely long; penis, epiphallus and flagellum little differentiated; penial retractor muscle short, inserting at flagellum tip; vas deferens extremely thin, mostly embedded in wall of penis and epiphallus; bursa copulatrix duct long, diverticulum absent. Pulmonary cavity sigmurethrous, secondary ureter closed for almost entire length. Foot holopodous, foot sole undivided.

<==Orthalicoidea [Orthalicea, Orthalicoidei] BR05
    |--Amphibulima Lamarck 1805 BR05 [Amphibulimidae BR17, Amphibuliminae]
    |    `--*A. cucullata Lamarck 1805 BR17
    |--Simpulopsis Beck 1837 BR05 [Simpulopsidae BR17, Simpulopsini]
    |    `--*S. sulculosa (Férussac 1821) [=Helix sulculosa] BR17
    |--Grangerella Cockerell 1915 [Grangerellidae] BR05
    |    |--*G. megastoma Cockerell 1915 BR17
    |    `--G. macleodensis (Russell 1929) TTE93
    |--Vidaliella Wenz 1940 BR05 [Vidaliellidae BR17, Vidaliellinae]
    |    |--*V. gerundensis (Vidal 1883) [=Bulimus gerundensis] BR17
    |    `--V. darderi TTE93
    |--Bothriembryontidae BR17
    |    |--Placostylinae BR17
    |    |--Bothriembryon BR17
    |    `--Prestonella Connolly 1929 BR05 [Prestonellidae, Prestonellinae BR17]
    |         `--*P. bowkeri (Sowerby 1890) [=Bulimus bowkeri] BR17
    |--Megaspiridae BR17
    |    |--Callionepion Pilsbry & Vanatta 1899 S88
    |    |--Ptychicula TTE93
    |    `--Megaspira Lea 1838 BR05
    |         `--*M. ruschenbergiana Lea 1836 BR17
    |--Odontostomidae [Odontostominae, Odontostomini] BR17
    |    |--Tomogeres Montfort 1810 [Tomogeridae] BR05
    |    |    `--*T. ringens (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Helix ringens BR17, Lucerna ringens BR05]
    |    |--Hyperaulax Pilsbry 1897 TTE93, AP90
    |    |    `--H. americanus (Heilprin 1887) TTE93
    |    `--Odontostomus Beck 1837 BR05
    |         |--*O. odontostoma (Sowerby 1824) [=Bulimus odontostoma] BR17
    |         `--O. gargantulus [=Bulimus gargantulus] BR17
    |--Bulimulidae [Bulimulacea, Bulimuloidea] BR17
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Pyrgus’ Albers 1850 non Hübner 1819 BR05
    |    |         Quiros Solem 1959 S88
    |    |         Gaeotis C97
    |    |         Pellicula C97
    |    |         Anctus angiostomus (Wagner 1927) S11
    |    |--Bostryx Troschel 1847 [Bostrycinae] BR17
    |    |    `--*B. solutus (Troschel 1847) [=Bulimus solutus] BR17
    |    |--Peltella Gray 1855 BR05 [Peltellina, Peltellinae BR17]
    |    |    `--*P. palliolum (Férussac 1821) [=Parmacellus palliolum] BR17
    |    `--Bulimulinae [Bulimulini] BR05
    |         |--Berendtia Crosse & Fischer 1869 [Berendtiidae, Berendtiinae, Berendtinae] BR05
    |         |    `--*B. taylori (Pfeiffer 1861) [=Clausilia taylori] BR17
    |         `--Bulimulus Leach 1814 BR05
    |              |--*B. trifasciatus Leach 1814 BR17
    |              |--B. guadelupensis BP90
    |              `--B. unicolor (Sowerby 1833) PM88
    `--Orthalicidae [Goniognatha, Orthalicinae] BR05
         |--Pseudostrombus BR05
         |--Naesiotus Albers 1850 BP90
         |--Palaeobulimulus eocenicus Parodiz 1949 TTE93
         |--Liguus Montfort 1810 [Liguidae] BR05
         |    |--*L. virgineus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Bulla virginea] BR17
         |    |--L. fasciatus BP90
         |    `--L. vittatus F12
         |--Drymaeus Albers 1850 BP90
         |    |--D. dormani BP90
         |    |--D. montagnei [=Otostomus (Drymaeus) montagnei] A66
         |    |--D. multilineatus BP90
         |    `--D. musivus [=Otostomus (Drymaeus) musivus] A66
         |--Rabdotus Albers 1850 BP90
         |    |--R. alternatus (Say 1830) BP90, PM88
         |    |--R. dealbatus BP90
         |    |--R. laevapex C90
         |    `--R. schiedeanus C90
         `--Orthalicus Beck 1837 BR05
              |  i. s.: O. bensoni A66
              |         O. floridensis BP90
              |         O. gallinasultana A66
              |--*O. (O.) zebra (Müller 1774) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
              |--O. (Corona) regina A66
              `--O. (Porphyrobaphe) A66
                   |--O. (P.) labeo A66
                   `--O. (P.) yatesi A66

*Orthalicus (Orthalicus) zebra (Müller 1774) BR17 [=Buccinum zebra BR17, Ampulla zebra BR17, Bulimus zebra G40, Bulla zebra G40, Helix zebra G40; incl. Bulimus undulatus G40, Bulimus zigzag G40]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[AP90] Auffenberg, K., & R. W. Portell. 1990. A new fossil land snail (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Polygyridae) from the Middle Miocene of northern Florida. Nautilus 103 (4): 143–148.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C97] Cuezzo, M. G. 1997. Cryptostrakon corcovadensis, a new species of semislug from Costa Rica (Helicoidea: Xanthonychidae) with comments on the systematic position of the genus. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 1–8.

[F12] Frýda, J. 2012. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic gastropods inferred from their ontogeny. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 395–435. Springer.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[PM88] Polaco, O. J., & W. Mendl. 1988. Occurrence of mites in Mexican land snails. Nautilus 102 (3): 129.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 26 June 2020.

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