Specimens of Orthalicus zebra, copyright Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Placostylinae, Bothriembryon, Bulimulinae.

The Orthalicoidea are a group of relatively high-spired land snails characterised by the possession of genitalia lacking accessory structures and with an extremely long phallus complex. Most families of orthalicoids are found in the Americas (particularly the Neotropics) but members of the family Bothriembryontidae are found in Australasia (as well as in southern South America). The latter family is also represented in southern Africa by a single genus, Prestonella. The fossil genus Vidaliella is known from the Palaeogene of Europe.

Within the Neotropical fauna, the Odontostomidae differ from other families in possessing dents or lamellae narrowing the aperture. The protoconch is smooth in Amphibulima and Orthalicidae but sculptured in other families. Orthalicidae are characterised by a conical penis bearing an appendix; in other families the penis is cylindrical and simple. Amphibulima is distinctive in possessing an heterurethrous rather than sigmurethrous reproductive system. The Megaspiridae are characterised by turreted shells with numerous short whorls. The Bulimulidae have a long penis, usually with a sheath, and the spermathecal stalk lacks a blind process.

<==Orthalicoidea [Orthalicea, Orthalicoidei] BR05
    |--Amphibulima Lamarck 1805 BR05 [Amphibulimidae BR17, Amphibuliminae]
    |    `--*A. cucullata Lamarck 1805 BR17
    |--Simpulopsis Beck 1837 BR05 [Simpulopsidae BR17, Simpulopsini]
    |    `--*S. sulculosa (Férussac 1821) [=Helix sulculosa] BR17
    |--Grangerella Cockerell 1915 [Grangerellidae] BR05
    |    |--*G. megastoma Cockerell 1915 BR17
    |    `--G. macleodensis (Russell 1929) TTE93
    |--Vidaliella Wenz 1940 BR05 [Vidaliellidae BR17, Vidaliellinae]
    |    |--*V. gerundensis (Vidal 1883) [=Bulimus gerundensis] BR17
    |    `--V. darderi TTE93
    |--Bothriembryontidae BR17
    |    |--Placostylinae BR17
    |    |--Bothriembryon BR17
    |    `--Prestonella Connolly 1929 BR05 [Prestonellidae, Prestonellinae BR17]
    |         `--*P. bowkeri (Sowerby 1890) [=Bulimus bowkeri] BR17
    |--Megaspiridae BR17
    |    |--Callionepion Pilsbry & Vanatta 1899 S88
    |    |--Ptychicula TTE93
    |    `--Megaspira Lea 1838 BR05
    |         `--*M. ruschenbergiana Lea 1836 BR17
    |--Odontostomidae [Odontostominae, Odontostomini] BR17
    |    |--Tomogeres Montfort 1810 [Tomogeridae] BR05
    |    |    `--*T. ringens (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Helix ringens BR17, Lucerna ringens BR05]
    |    |--Hyperaulax Pilsbry 1897 TTE93, AP90
    |    |    `--H. americanus (Heilprin 1887) TTE93
    |    `--Odontostomus Beck 1837 BR05
    |         |--*O. odontostoma (Sowerby 1824) [=Bulimus odontostoma] BR17
    |         `--O. gargantulus [=Bulimus gargantulus] BR17
    |--Bulimulidae [Bulimulacea, Bulimuloidea] BR17
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Pyrgus’ Albers 1850 non Hübner 1819 BR05
    |    |         Quiros Solem 1959 S88
    |    |         Gaeotis C97
    |    |         Pellicula C97
    |    |         Anctus angiostomus (Wagner 1927) S11
    |    |--Bulimulinae BR05
    |    |--Bostryx Troschel 1847 [Bostrycinae] BR17
    |    |    `--*B. solutus (Troschel 1847) [=Bulimus solutus] BR17
    |    `--Peltella Gray 1855 BR05 [Peltellina, Peltellinae BR17]
    |         `--*P. palliolum (Férussac 1821) [=Parmacellus palliolum] BR17
    `--Orthalicidae [Goniognatha, Orthalicinae] BR05
         |--Pseudostrombus BR05
         |--Naesiotus Albers 1850 BP90
         |--Palaeobulimulus eocenicus Parodiz 1949 TTE93
         |--Liguus Montfort 1810 [Liguidae] BR05
         |    |--*L. virgineus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Bulla virginea] BR17
         |    |--L. fasciatus BP90
         |    `--L. vittatus F12
         |--Drymaeus Albers 1850 BP90
         |    |--D. dormani BP90
         |    |--D. montagnei [=Otostomus (Drymaeus) montagnei] A66
         |    |--D. multilineatus BP90
         |    `--D. musivus [=Otostomus (Drymaeus) musivus] A66
         |--Rabdotus Albers 1850 BP90
         |    |--R. alternatus (Say 1830) BP90, PM88
         |    |--R. dealbatus BP90
         |    |--R. laevapex C90
         |    `--R. schiedeanus C90
         `--Orthalicus Beck 1837 BR05
              |  i. s.: O. bensoni A66
              |         O. floridensis BP90
              |         O. gallinasultana A66
              |         O. longus [=Bulimus longus] C64
              |         O. princeps (Broderip 1833) J68 [=Bulimus princeps C64]
              |         O. ziegleri (Pfeiffer 1856) [=Bulimus ziegleri] C64
              |--*O. (Orthalicus) zebra (Müller 1774) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
              |--O. (Corona) regina A66
              `--O. (Porphyrobaphe) A66
                   |--O. (P.) labeo A66
                   `--O. (P.) yatesi A66

*Orthalicus (Orthalicus) zebra (Müller 1774) BR17 [=Buccinum zebra BR17, Ampulla zebra BR17, Bulimus zebra G40, Bulla zebra G40, Helix zebra G40; incl. Orthalicus livens C64, Zebra muelleri C64, Bulimus undatus Valenciennes 1833 C64, Orthalicus undatus G79, Bulimus undulatus G40, Bulimus zigzag G40]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[AP90] Auffenberg, K., & R. W. Portell. 1990. A new fossil land snail (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Polygyridae) from the Middle Miocene of northern Florida. Nautilus 103 (4): 143–148.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C97] Cuezzo, M. G. 1997. Cryptostrakon corcovadensis, a new species of semislug from Costa Rica (Helicoidea: Xanthonychidae) with comments on the systematic position of the genus. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 1–8.

[F12] Frýda, J. 2012. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic gastropods inferred from their ontogeny. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 395–435. Springer.

[G79] Gibbons, J. S. 1879. Notes on the habits and distribution, &c., of certain W. Indian Pulmonifera. Journal of Conchology 2: 129–134.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[J68] Jacobson, M. K. 1968. On a collection of terrestrial mollusks from Nicaragua. Nautilus 81 (4): 114–119.

[PM88] Polaco, O. J., & W. Mendl. 1988. Occurrence of mites in Mexican land snails. Nautilus 102 (3): 129.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 21 August 2021.

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