Stock pigeons Columba oenas, photographed by Ulrike Brütting.

Belongs within: Columbidae.

Columba is a cosmopolitan genus of medium-sized to large pigeons, including the domestic pigeon or rock dove Columba livia. Columba species have a slightly rounded tail that is much shorter than the wings, and feathers with broad and rounded or nearly truncated tips (Ridgway 1887). The native range of the genus covers Eurasia and Africa, with New World species previously included in Columba now recognised as a distinct genus Patagioenas.

<==Columba Linnaeus 1758 CC10 [incl. Palumbus Kaup 1829 B94, Verrulia Flemming 1822 (nom. inv.) B94; Verruliinae]
    |--C. junoniae JT12
    `--+--C. arquatrix BKB15
       |    |--C. a. arquatrix T62
       |    `--C. a. sjoestedti T62
       `--+--+--C. pulchricollis BKB15
          |  `--C. vitiensis JT12
          |       |--C. v. vitiensis M03
          |       `--C. v. godmanae M03
          `--+--+--C. bollii JT12 [=C. trocaz bollii T62]
             |  `--C. palumbus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
             |       |--C. p. palumbus T62
             |       |--C. p. azorica T62
             |       |--C. p. excelsa T62
             |       |--C. p. iranica T62
             |       |--C. p. kirmanica T62
             |       |--C. p. kleinschmidti T62
             |       `--C. p. maderensis T62
             `--+--C. guinea JT12
                |    |--C. g. guinea T62
                |    |--C. g. bradfieldi T62
                |    |--C. g. dilloni T62
                |    |--C. g. phaeonotus T62
                |    `--C. g. uhehensis T62
                `--+--*C. oenas Linnaeus 1758 CC10, JT12, M02
                   |    |--C. o. oenas T62
                   |    |--C. o. hyrcana T62
                   |    |--C. o. tianshanica T62
                   |    `--C. o. yarkandensis T62
                   `--+--C. livia Gmelin 1789 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |    |--C. l. livia T62
                      |    |--C. l. domestica (Gmelin 1789) T62, HRS06
                      |    |--C. l. neglecta T62
                      |    `--C. l. rustica T62
                      `--C. rupestris JT12
                           |--C. r. rupestris T62
                           `--C. r. turkestanica T62

Columba incertae sedis:
  C. albinucha JT12
  C. albitorques Rüppell 1837 S05
  C. argentina JT12
  C. asiatica Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. aurita Temminck 1811 [=Turtur auritus] CC10
  C. caribaea RN72
  C. cayennensis ZJM03
  C. chlorophaea Hartlaub in Dohrn 1866 D66
  C. corensis RN72
  C. cucullata Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. cyanocephala Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. delegorguei JT12
  C. duboisi FP64
  C. elphinstonii JT12 [=Palumbus elphinstonei B66]
  C. eversmanni JT12
  C. fasciata T62
    |--C. f. fasciata T62
    |--C. f. letonai T62
    |--C. f. parva T62
    `--C. f. vioscae T62
  C. gutturosa Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. hispanica Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. hispida Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. hodgsonii JT12
  C. hypoenochroa S13
    |--C. h. hypoenochroa S13
    `--C. h. uveaensis Sarasin 1913 S13
  C. inornata SWK87
    |--C. i. inornata SWK87
    `--C. i. wetmorei SWK87
  C. intermedia D59
  C. iriditorques JT12
  C. janthina Temminck 1830 I92
    |--C. j. janthina I92
    |--C. j. nitens (Stejneger 1887) I92
    `--C. j. stejnegeri (Kuroda 1923) I92
  C. jouyi (Stejneger 1887) I92
  C. leucocephala Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. leucomela JT12
  C. leuconota JT12
    |--C. l. leuconota T62
    `--C. l. gradaria T62
  C. leucoptera Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. macroura Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. maculosa RN72
  C. malherbii JT12
  C. melitensis Lydekker 1891 M02
  C. montana Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. nicobarica Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. nigrirostris S18
  C. oliviae JT12
  C. pallidiceps JT12
  C. palumboides JT12
  C. passerina Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. picazuro T62
    |--C. p. picazuro T62
    `--C. p. marginalis T62
  C. pisana (Portis 1889) [=Falco pisanus; incl. C. omnisanctorum Ballmann 1976] M02
  C. pollenii JT12
  C. punicea JT12
  C. rufina [=Chloroenas rufina] SS66
    |--C. r. rufina S18
    `--C. r. pallidicrissa S18
  C. semitorquata Rüppell 1837 S05
  C. sinica Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. sjostedti JT12
  C. speciosa ZJM03
  C. squamosa T62
  C. subvinacea S18
  C. tabellaria Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. thomensis JT12
  C. torringtoniae JT12
  C. tremula Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. trocaz JT12
  C. turbita Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. unicincta JT12
  C. versicolor Kittlitz 1832 I92
  C. vinacea [=Chloroenas vinacea] SS66

Inorganic: Columba janthina minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Columba livia Gmelin 1789 JT12, CC10 [=C. domestica livia CC10; incl. C. livia lazaretensis Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02, C. livia minuta Mourer-Chauviré 1975 nec C. minuta Linnaeus 1758 nec Temminck 1838-1843 M02, C. livia occitana Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568–571.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

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[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324–332.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HRS06] Hahn, I., U. Römer & R. P. Schlatter. 2006. Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 109–125.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

Ridgway, R. 1887. A Manual of North American Birds. J. B. Lippincott Company: Philadelphia.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

Last updated: 25 August 2019.

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