Stock pigeons Columba oenas, photographed by Ulrike Brütting.

Belongs within: Columbidae.

Columba is a cosmopolitan genus of medium-sized to large pigeons, including the domestic pigeon or rock dove Columba livia. Columba species have a slightly rounded tail that is much shorter than the wings, and feathers with broad and rounded or nearly truncated tips (Ridgway 1887).

<==Columba Linnaeus 1758 M02 [incl. Palumbus Kaup 1829 B94, Verrulia Flemming 1822 (nom. inv.) B94; Verruliinae]
    |--C. junoniae JT12
    `--+--+--C. pulchricollis JT12
       |  `--C. vitiensis JT12
       |       |--C. v. vitiensis M03
       |       `--C. v. godmanae M03
       `--+--C. arquatrix JT12
          |    |--C. a. arquatrix T62
          |    `--C. a. sjoestedti T62
          `--+--+--C. bollii JT12 [=C. trocaz bollii T62]
             |  `--C. palumbus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
             |       |--C. p. palumbus T62
             |       |--C. p. azorica T62
             |       |--C. p. excelsa T62
             |       |--C. p. iranica T62
             |       |--C. p. kirmanica T62
             |       |--C. p. kleinschmidti T62
             |       `--C. p. maderensis T62
             `--+--C. guinea JT12
                |    |--C. g. guinea T62
                |    |--C. g. bradfieldi T62
                |    |--C. g. dilloni T62
                |    |--C. g. phaeonotus T62
                |    `--C. g. uhehensis T62
                `--+--C. oenas Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
                   |    |--C. o. oenas T62
                   |    |--C. o. hyrcana T62
                   |    |--C. o. tianshanica T62
                   |    `--C. o. yarkandensis T62
                   `--+--C. livia Gmelin 1789 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                      |    |--C. l. livia T62
                      |    |--C. l. domestica (Gmelin 1789) T62, HRS06
                      |    |--C. l. neglecta T62
                      |    `--C. l. rustica T62
                      `--C. rupestris JT12
                           |--C. r. rupestris T62
                           `--C. r. turkestanica T62

Columba incertae sedis:
  C. albinucha JT12
  C. albitorques Rüppell 1837 S05
  C. argentina JT12
  C. cayennensis ZJM03
  C. chlorophaea Hartlaub in Dohrn 1866 D66
  C. delegorguei JT12
  C. duboisi FP64
  C. elphinstonii JT12 [=Palumbus elphinstonei B66]
  C. eversmanni T62
  C. fasciata T62
    |--C. f. fasciata T62
    |--C. f. letonai T62
    |--C. f. parva T62
    `--C. f. vioscae T62
  C. hodgsonii JT12
  C. hypoenochroa S13
    |--C. h. hypoenochroa S13
    `--C. h. uveaensis Sarasin 1913 S13
  C. inornata SWK87
    |--C. i. inornata SWK87
    `--C. i. wetmorei SWK87
  C. intermedia D59
  C. iriditorques JT12
  C. janthina Temminck 1830 I92
    |--C. j. janthina I92
    |--C. j. nitens (Stejneger 1887) I92
    `--C. j. stejnegeri (Kuroda 1923) I92
  C. jouyi (Stejneger 1887) I92
  C. leucocephala SWK87
  C. leucomela M03
  C. leuconota T62
    |--C. l. leuconota T62
    `--C. l. gradaria T62
  C. malherbii T62
  C. melitensis Lydekker 1891 M02
  C. oliviae JT12
  C. pallidiceps JT12
  C. palumboides JT12
  C. picazuro T62
    |--C. p. picazuro T62
    `--C. p. marginalis T62
  C. pisana (Portis 1889) [=Falco pisanus; incl. C. omnisanctorum Ballmann 1976] M02
  C. pollenii JT12
  C. punicea JT12
  C. rufina [=Chloroenas rufina] SS66
  C. semitorquata Rüppell 1837 S05
  C. sjostedti JT12
  C. speciosa ZJM03
  C. squamosa T62
  C. thomensis JT12
  C. torringtoniae JT12
  C. trocaz T62
  C. unicincta JT12
  C. versicolor Kittlitz 1832 I92
  C. vinacea [=Chloroenas vinacea] SS66

Inorganic: Columba janthina minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Columba livia Gmelin 1789 JT12, M02 [incl. C. livia lazaretensis Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02, C. livia minuta Mourer-Chauviré 1975 nec C. minuta Linnaeus 1758 nec Temminck 1838-1843 M02, C. livia occitana Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568-571.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324-332.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HRS06] Hahn, I., U. Römer & R. P. Schlatter. 2006. Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 109-125.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

Ridgway, R. 1887. A Manual of North American Birds. J. B. Lippincott Company: Philadelphia.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7-460.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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