Greenshank Tringa nebularia, photographed by J. Dietrich.

Belongs within: Scolopacoidea.

The genus Tringa includes the shanks and wood sandpipers, medium-sized long-legged shorebirds with relatively slight changes in plumage between breeding and non-breeding seasons.

Characters (from Ridgway 1887, as Totanus*): Ears situated well posterior to eyes; exposed culmen more than one-fifth as long as wing; bill narrow at tip, where hard and smooth on top, tip of upper mandible thin with cutting edges far apart. Wing more than 110 mm long; axillars white or barred with white and dusky. Tail not more than half as long as wing, longer than exposed culmen. Back of tarsus with continuous row of transverse scutellae; hind toe present; middle toe united to one or both lateral toes by distinct web.

*Due to different type species designations, many authors in the 19th and early 20th centuries applied the name Tringa to species now included in the genus Calidris.

<==Tringa Linnaeus 1758 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*T. ochropus Linnaeus 1758 B94, M02 [=T. ocropus M02]
    |--T. brevipes (Vieillot 1816) R85 [=Heteroscelus brevipes T89]
    |--T. edwardsi (Gaillard 1908) [=Totanus edwardsi] M02
    |--T. erythropus Linnaeus 1758 M02
    |--T. flavipes (Gmelin 1789) R85
    |--T. glareola Linnaeus 1758 M02
    |--‘Totanus’ glottis D66
    |--T. gracilis Milne-Edwards 1868 [=Erolia gracilis] M02
    |--T. grigorescui Kessler & Gál 1996 M02
    |--T. guttifer (Nordmann 1835) I92
    |--T. hypoleucos Linnaeus 1758 R85 [=Actitis hypoleucos T89]
    |--T. incana (Gmelin 1789) R85
    |--T. maculata SS66
    |--T. melanoleuca WBSJ82 [=Totanus melanoleucus A61]
    |--‘Totanus’ minor Ennouchi 1930 (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--T. nebularia (Gunnerus 1767) R85
    |--T. numenioides (Serebrovs’kyj 1941) [=Totanus numenioides, Tr. numenioidea] M02
    |--‘Totanus’ praecursor Laube 1901 M02
    |--T. scarabellii (Portis 1887) [=Totanus scarabellii] M02
    |--T. solitaria FS55
    |--T. stagnatilis (Bechstein 1803) R85
    |--T. subarquata D66
    |--T. terek Latham 1790 R85
    `--T. totanus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Scolopax totanus] M02
         |--T. t. totanus I92
         `--T. t. eurhinus (Oberholser 1900) I92

‘Totanus’ minor Ennouchi 1930 non Tringa cinclus minor Schlegel 1844 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) [=Erolia ennouchii Brodkorb 1967] M02

Tringa Linnaeus 1758 M02 [incl. Erythroscelus Kaup 1829 B94, Totanus Bechstein 1803 B94; Erythroscelini, Totanini, Tringini]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324-332.

[FST81] Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

Ridgway, R. 1887. A Manual of North American Birds. J. B. Lippincott Company: Philadelphia.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

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