Pteroclidae

Female Namaqua sandgrouse Pterocles namaqua, copyright Johann Grobbelaar.


Belongs within: Neoaves.

The Pteroclidae, sandgrouse, are pigeon-like birds with long, pointed wings and tails found in arid regions of Eurasia and Africa. Sandgrouse have thick skins and very short legs that are feathered right down to the toes (Austin 1961). Flocks of sandgrouse can often be found at waterholes, where they often drink after wading into the water. The feathers on their underside absorb water that they carry away for their young.

<==Pteroclidae [Pterocleidae, Pterocleiformes, Pterocletes, Pterocletidae, Pteroclididae, Pterocliformes]
    |--Leptoganga Mourer-Chauviré 1993 M05
    |    `--*L. sepultus (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Pterocles sepultus] M02
    |--Gerandia Lambrecht 1933 M02
    |    `--*G. calcaria (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Columba calcaria] M02
    |--Archaeoganga Mourer-Chauviré 1992 M05
    |    |--*A. pinguis Mourer-Chauviré 1992 M02
    |    |--A. larvatus (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Pterocles larvatus] M02
    |    `--A. validus (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Pterocles validus] M02
    `--Pterocles Temminck 1815 B94
         |  i. s.: P. alchata (Linnaeus 1766) [=Tetrao alchata, P. alchatus] CC10
         |         P. burchelli [incl. P. burchelli delabati Winterbottom 1964] B93
         |         P. decoratus JT12
         |         P. exustus L81
         |           |--P. e. exustus L81
         |           `--P. e. hindustan L81
         |         P. indicus JT12
         |         P. lichtensteinii JT12
         |         P. personatus JT12
         |         P. quadricinctus JT12
         |         P. senegallus JT12
         |--P. coronatus BKB15
         `--+--P. namaqua BKB15
            `--+--P. bicinctus BKB15
               `--+--+--P. gutturalis Smith 1836 JT12, ME04
                  |  `--P. orientalis JT12
                  `--Syrrhaptes Illiger 1811 JT12, B94 [Syrrhaptidae]
                       |--S. paradoxus HK08
                       `--S. tibetanus JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763–1768.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1–2): 1–17.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

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