Fossilised remains of Agnopterus tuberculatus (=Idiornis tuberculata) at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, Brussels, photographed by Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Anomalogonatae.
Contains: Phorusrhacidae.

The Cariamae contain the modern Cariamidae (seriemas), long-legged primarily carnivorous birds, and related fossil taxa. Though the living Cariamidae include only two South American species, Cariamae were more diverse in the past. Fossil representatives of the clade include the North American Bathornithidae, the European Idiornithidae, and the primarily South American Phorusrhacidae.

Synapomorphies (from Mayr 2002): Coracoid with processus procoracoideus fused to processus acrocoracoideus; tarsometatarsus with hypotarsus block-like, plantar prominence without well developed sulci.

<==Cariamae [Cariamides, Cariamoidea, Stereornithes]
    |  i. s.: Bathornithidae AH03
    |           |--Neocathartes [Neocathartidae] AH03
    |           |    `--N. grallator (Wetmore 1944) AH03
    |           `--Bathornis Wetmore 1927 Ml02
    |                |--B. grallator Ma02
    |                `--B. veredus FP64
    |         Strigogyps Gaillard 1908 M05a (see below for synonymy)
    |           |--*S. dubius Gaillard 1908 Ml02 [incl. S. minor Gaillard 1939 M05b, *Ameghinornis minor Ml02]
    |           `--S. sapea (Peters 1987) M05b [=*Aenigmavis sapea Ml02]
    |         Gypsornis Milne-Edwards 1869 [incl. Percolinus Harrison & Walker 1977] Ml02
    |           |--*G. cuvieri Milne-Edwards 1869 Ml02
    |           `--G. venablesi (Harrison & Walker 1977) [=*Percolinus venablesi] Ml02
    |         Talantatos Reichenbach 1852 [=Tantalatos (l. c.); incl. Filholornis Milne-Edwards 1892] Ml02
    |           |--*T. fossilis (Giebel 1847) (see below for synonymy) Ml02
    |           |--T. brodkorbi (Mourer-Chauviré 1983) [=Elaphrocnemus brodkorbi] Ml02
    |           `--T. proudlocki (Harrison & Walker 1979) [=Percolinus proudlocki] Ml02
    |         ‘Diatryma’ cotei Gaillard 1937 Ml02
    |--+--Phorusrhacidae M05
    |  `--Cariamidae [Agnopteridae, Cariaminae, Dicholophidae, Microdactylidae] M05
    |       |--Chunga Hartlaub 1860 L98
    |       `--Cariama Brisson 1760 L98 (see below for synonymy)
    |            `--C. cristata AH03
    `--Idiornithidae [Idiornithinae] M05
         |--Elaphrocnemus Milne-Edwards 1892 AH03, Ml02
         |    `--*E. phasianus Milne-Edwards 1892 Ml02
         |--Geiseloceros Lambrecht 1935 M05
         |    `--*G. robustus Lambrecht 1935 Ml02
         |--Agnopterus Milne-Edwards 1868 (see below for synonymy) Ml02
         |    |--*A. laurillardi Milne-Edwards 1868 Ml02
         |    |--A. gallicus (Milne-Edwards 1892) (see below for synonymy) Ml02
         |    |--A. gracilis (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Elaphrocnemus gracilis, Idiornis gracilis] Ml02
         |    |--A. itardiensis (Mourer-Chauviré 1983) [=Agnopterus itardiensis] Ml02
         |    |--A. minor (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Orthocnemus minor, Idiornis minor] Ml02
         |    `--A. tuberculatus (Peters 1995) [=Idiornis tuberculata] Ml02
         `--Propelargus Lydekker 1891 M05b (see below for synonymy)
              |--*P. cayluxensis Lydekker 1891 Ml02
              |--P. elatus (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=*Geranopsis elatus, *Occitaniavis elatus] Ml02
              |--P. insolitus (Mourer-Chauviré 1983) [=*Oblitavis insolitus] Ml02
              `--P. olseni VR72

Agnopterus Milne-Edwards 1868 [incl. Idiornis Oberholser 1899, Orthocnemus Milne-Edwards 1892 non Jekel 1857] Ml02

Cariama Brisson 1760 L98 [incl. Dicholophus Illiger 1811 B94, Microdactylus Geoffry St.-Hilaire 1809 B94]

Agnopterus gallicus (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=*Orthocnemus gallicus, *Idiornis gallicus; incl. O. cursor Milne-Edwards 1892, Idiornis cursor, I. gaillardi Cracraft 1973, Filholornis gravis Milne-Edwards 1892] Ml02

Propelargus Lydekker 1891 M05b [incl. Geranopsis Milne-Edwards 1892 non Lydekker 1891 Ml02, Oblitavis Mourer-Chauviré 1983 Ml02, Occitaniavis Mourer-Chauviré 1983 Ml02]

Strigogyps Gaillard 1908 M05a [incl. Aenigmavis Peters 1897 M05b, Ameghinornis Mourer-Chauviré 1981 M05b; Ameghinornithidae M05b, Ameginornithinae]

*Talantatos fossilis (Giebel 1847) [=Tantalus fossilis; incl. Elaphrocnemus crex Milne-Edwards 1892, Filholornis debilis Milne-Edwards 1892, Orthocnemus major Milne-Edwards 1892, Idiornis major, *Filholornis paradoxa Milne-Edwards 1892, Telecrex peregrinus Mlíkovský 1989] Ml02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AH03] Alvarenga, H. M. F., & E. Höfling. 2003. Systematic revision of the Phorusrhacidae (Aves: Ralliformes). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 43 (4): 55-91.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 353: 2077-2151.

[Ma02] Mayr, G. 2002. A new specimen of Salmila robusta (Aves: Gruiformes: Salmilidae n. fam.) from the Middle Eocene of Messel. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (2): 305-316.

[M05a] Mayr, G. 2005a. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M05b] Mayr, G. 2005b. "Old World phorusrhacids" (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): a new look at Strigogyps ("Aenigmavis") sapea (Peters 1987). PaleoBios 25 (1): 11-16.

[Ml02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[VR72] Vickers Rich, P. 1972. A fossil avifauna from the Upper Miocene Beglia Formation of Tunisia. Notes du Service Géologique 35: 29-66.

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