Sanderling Calidris alba, photographed by Mdf.

Belongs within: Scolopacidae.

Calidris contains the sandpipers, a group of small shorebirds with an bill that is elliptical in cross-section and generally longer than the tarsus. Calidris species exhibit a range of sizes, bill lengths and feeding habits. Phylogenetic analysis (Jetz et al. 2012) supports division of Calidris between a clade containing mostly smaller species (C. ferruginea to C. minuta in the tree below), and one containing the knots C. canutus and C. tenuirostris (together with the surfbird Aphriza virgata). The broad-billed sandpiper Limicola falcinellus and ruff Philomachus pugnax also form a clade nested within Calidris. Male ruffs develop a prominent collar and ear-tufts of white or red feathers during the breeding season.

<==Calidris Merrem 1804 CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: ‘Tringa’ cooperi [=Pisobia cooperi] CG99
    |         C. paramelanotos M03
    |--+--C. acuminata (Horsfield 1821) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--+--C. canutus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |    |--C. c. canutus CC10
    |     |    `--C. c. rogersi (Mathews 1913) [=Canutus canutus rogersi] CC10
    |     `--+--C. tenuirostris (Horsfield 1821) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |        `--Aphriza Audubon 1839 JT12, B94 [Aphrizinae]
    |             `--A. virgata JT12
    `--+--+--Philomachus Merrem 1804 JT12, CC10 [incl. Machetes Cuvier 1816 B94; Machetinae, Philomachinae]
       |  |    `--*P. pugnax (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |  `--Limicola Koch 1816 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |       `--L. falcinellus (Pontoppidan 1763) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |            |--L. f. falcinellus CC10
       |            `--L. f. sibirica Dresser 1876 [=L. falcinellus sibiricus] CC10
       `--+--+--C. subminuta (Middendorff 1851) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |  `--C. temminckii (Leisler in Bechst. 1812) BKB15, M01 =Tringa temminckii CC10, *Limonites temminckii CC10]
          `--+--+--C. alpina (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |    |--C. a. alpina M03
             |  |    |--C. a. pacifica M03
             |  |    `--C. a. sakhalina M03
             |  `--+--C. maritima JT12
             |     `--C. ptilocnemis (Coues 1873) JT12, I92
             `--+--+--C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan 1763) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                |  `--Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, I92
                `--+--+--+--C. minutilla (Vieillot 1819) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  |  `--C. ruficollis (Pallas 1776) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  `--+--C. minuta (Leisler 1812) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |     `--+--C. alba (Pallas in Vroeg 1764) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |        `--C. fuscicollis (Vieillot 1819) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--+--C. himantopus (Bonaparte 1826) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--+--C. mauri (Cabanis 1857) BKB15, CC10 [=Ereunetes mauri CC10]
                         |  `--C. pusilla (Linnaeus 1766) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                         `--+--C. melanotos (Vieillot 1819) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                            `--+--C. bairdii (Coues 1861) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                               `--‘Tryngites’ subruficollis BKB15

Calidris Merrem 1804 CC10 [incl. Actodromas Kaup 1829 CC10, Ancylochilus Kaup 1829 CC10, Anteliotringa Mathews 1913 CC10, Canutus Brehm 1831 CC10, Crocethia Billberg 1828 CC10, Ereunetes Illiger 1811 CC10, Erolia Vieillot 1816 CC10, Heteropoda Bonaparte 1838 non Latreille 1804 B94, Heteropygia Coues 1861 CC10, Limnocinclus Gould 1865 CC10, Limonites Kaup 1829 CC10, Micropalama Baird 1858 CC10, Pelidna Cuvier 1817 CC10, Pisobia Billberg 1828 CC10; Calidrinae, Canutinae, Eroliinae]

Calidris acuminata
(Horsfield 1821) BKB15, CC10 [=Totanus acuminatus CC10, Erolia acuminata CC10, E. acuminatus CC10, Heteropygia maculata acuminata CC10, *Limnocinclus acuminatus CC10, Pisobia maculata acuminata CC10, Tringa acuminata CC10; incl. Schoeniclus australis S13, Limnocinclus acuminatus rufescens Mathews 1916 WS48]

Calidris alba (Pallas in Vroeg 1764) BKB15, CC10 [=Trynga alba CC10, Crocethia alba CC10; incl. Charadrius calidris CC10, *Cr. calidris CC10, Totanus calidris B49, Arenaria leucophaea carteri Mathews 1916 WS48]

Calidris alpina (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa alpina CC10, Erolia alpina CC10, *Pelidna alpina CC10; incl. Tringa cinclus minor Schlegel 1844 M02]

Calidris bairdii (Coues 1861) JT12, CC10 [=Actodromas bairdii CC10, Erolia bairdii CC10, Heteropygia bairdi CC10]

Calidris canutus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Tringa canutus CC10, *Canutus canutus CC10; incl. T. calidris CC10, *Calidris calidris CC10]

Calidris ferruginea (Pontoppidan 1763) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa ferrugineus CC10, Erolia ferruginea CC10; incl. T. (Pelidna) chinensis Gray 1831 CC10, E. testacea chinensis CC10, Scolopax subarquata Güldenstaedt 1775 CC10, Tringa subarquata CC10, *Ancylochilus subarquatus CC10, Scolopax testacea Pallas in Vroeg 1764 CC10, Erolia testacea CC10, *E. variegata CC10, E. ferruginea wilsoni Mathews 1917 WS48]

Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot 1819) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa fuscicollis CC10, C. fusicollis CC10, Erolia fuscicollis CC10, Heteropygia fuscicollis CC10, Pisobia fuscicollis S18; incl. Tringa bonapartei CC10, *Heteropygia bonapartei CC10]

Calidris himantopus (Bonaparte 1826) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa himantopus CC10, *Micropalama himantopus CC10]

Calidris melanotos (Vieillot 1819) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa melanotos CC10, Erolia melanotos CC10; incl. T. maculata Vieillot 1819 CC10, E. maculata CC10, Heteropygia maculata CC10, Limnocinclus maculata CC10, Pisobia maculata S18, Pelidna pectoralis Say 1823 CC10, Limnocinclus pectoralis CC10, Pisobia pectoralis CC10]

Calidris minuta (Leisler 1812) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa minuta CC10, *Actodromas minutus CC10, Erolia minuta CC10, Limonites minuta CC10, *Pisobia minuta CC10]

Calidris minutilla (Vieillot 1819) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa minutilla CC10, Erolia minutilla CC10, Limonites minutilla CC10, Pisobia minutilla S18]

Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus 1766) JT12, CC10 [=Tringa pusillus CC10, Ereunetes pusillus CC10; incl. *E. petrificatus CC10]

Calidris ruficollis (Pallas 1776) JT12, CC10 [=Trynga ruficollis CC10, Erolia ruficollis CC10, Limonites ruficollis CC10, Pisobia minuta ruficollis CC10]

Calidris subminuta (Middendorff 1851) BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa subminuta CC10, Erolia subminuta CC10, Pisobia subminuta CC10; incl. P. subminuta boweri Mathews 1916 WS48]

Calidris tenuirostris (Horsfield 1821) JT12, CC10 [=Totanus tenuirostris CC10, *Anteliotringa tenuirostris CC10]

Limicola Koch 1816 JT12, CC10 [incl. Falcinellus Kaup 1829 non Vieillot 1816 CC10, Platyrhamphus Billberg 1828 CC10]

Limicola falcinellus (Pontoppidan 1763) [=Scolopax falcinellus; incl. Tringa platyrhynchus, *Falcinellus platyrhynchus, Numenius pusillus, *Platyrhamphus pusillus, N. pygmaeus, *Limicola pygmaeus] CC10

*Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Tringa pugnax CC10, Machetes pugnax S66; incl. Philomachus pugnax rhyphaeicus Potapova 1990 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 10 August 2019.

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