Sanderling Calidris alba, photographed by Mdf.

Belongs within: Scolopacidae.

Calidris contains the sandpipers, a group of small shorebirds with an bill that is elliptical in cross-section and generally longer than the tarsus. Calidris species exhibit a range of sizes, bill lengths and feeding habits. Phylogenetic analysis (Jetz et al. 2012) supports division of Calidris between a clade containing mostly smaller species (C. ferruginea to C. minuta in the tree below), and one containing the knots C. canutus and C. tenuirostris (together with the surfbird Aphriza virgata). The broad-billed sandpiper Limicola falcinellus and ruff Philomachus pugnax also form a clade nested within Calidris.

<==Calidris Merrem 1804 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: C. acuminata (Horsfield 1821) R85 (see below for synonymy)
    |         C. paramelanotos M03
    |         ‘Scolopax’ testacea Pallas 1764 [=Erolia testacea; incl. E. ferruginea wilsoni Mathews 1917] WS48
    |--+--*C. canutus (Linnaeus 1758) B94, JT12, B94 [=*Tringa canutus B94]
    |  |    |--C. c. canutus HR96
    |  |    `--C. c. rogersi HR96
    |  `--+--C. tenuirostris (Horsfield 1821) JT12, WS48 [=Totanus tenuirostris WS48]
    |     `--Aphriza Audubon 1839 JT12, B94 [Aphrizinae]
    |          `--A. virgata JT12
    `--+--+--Limicola falcinellus (Pontoppidan 1763) JT12, WS48 [=Scolopax falcinellus WS48]
       |  |    |--L. f. falcinellus R85
       |  |    `--L. f. sibiricus Dresser 1876 R85
       |  `--Philomachus Merrem 1804 JT12, M02 [incl. Machetes Cuvier 1816 B94; Machetinae, Philomachinae]
       |       `--P. pugnax (Linnaeus 1758) M02 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan 1763) JT12, R85
          `--+--C. subminuta (Middendorff 1851) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
             `--+--C. temminckii JT12
                `--+--+--C. alpina (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  |    |--C. a. alpina M03
                   |  |    |--C. a. pacifica M03
                   |  |    `--C. a. sakhalina M03
                   |  `--+--C. maritima JT12
                   |     `--C. ptilocnemis (Coues 1873) JT12, I92
                   `--+--+--+--C. bairdii (Coues 1861) JT12, R85
                      |  |  `--‘Tryngites’ subruficollis JT12
                      |  `--+--C. himantopus JT12
                      |     `--C. melanotos (Vieillot 1819) JT12, R85 [=Tringa melanotos WS48, Erolia melanotos FP64]
                      `--+--+--C. mauri (Cabanis 1857) JT12, R85
                         |  `--C. pusilla JT12
                         `--+--+--C. minutilla JT12 [=Erolia minutilla A61]
                            |  `--C. ruficollis (Pallas 1776) JT12, R85 (see below for synonymy)
                            `--+--Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, I92
                               `--+--C. fuscicollis (Vieillot 1819) JT12, R85 [=Erolia fuscicollis FP64]
                                  `--+--C. alba (Pallas 1764) JT12, R85 (see below for synonymy)
                                     `--C. minuta JT12

Calidris Merrem 1804 M02 [=Tringa Linné 1766 non Linnaeus 1758 B94; incl. Calidris Illiger 1811 non Merrem 1804 B94, Canutus Brehm 1831 B94, Erolia Vieillot 1816 B94, Heteropoda Bonaparte 1838 non Latreille 1804 B94; Calidrinae, Canutinae, Eroliinae]

Calidris acuminata
(Horsfield 1821) R85 [=Totanus acuminatus WS48, Erolia acuminata WS48; incl. Limnocinclus acuminatus rufescens Mathews 1916 WS48]

Calidris alba (Pallas 1764) JT12, R85 [=Trynga alba WS48, *Calidris (sensu Illiger) alba B94, Crocethia alba B94; incl. Totanus calidris B49, Arenaria leucophaea carteri Mathews 1916 WS48]

Calidris alpina (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Erolia alpina M02; incl. Tringa cinclus minor Schlegel 1844 M02]

Calidris ruficollis (Pallas 1776) JT12, R85 [=Trynga ruficollis WS48, Erolia ruficollis WS48]

Calidris subminuta (Middendorff 1851) JT12, WS48 [=Tringa subminuta WS48; incl. Pisobia subminuta boweri Mathews 1916 WS48]

Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus 1758) M02 [=Tringa pugnax M02, Machetes pugnax Scl66; incl. Philomachus pugnax rhyphaeicus Potapova 1990 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267-320.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

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