Larus

Herring gulls Larus argentatus, photographed by Ricky.


Belongs within: Laridae.

The genus Larus as used here includes the majority of the gulls, long-winged, relatively short- and stout-billed generalist wading birds found worldwide. Though primarily associated with coastal habitats (as indicated by their webbed feet), many gulls can also be found great distances inland. Most gulls are grey or white in colouration, often with some degree of darker colouration on the wings and back.

<==Larus Linnaeus 1758 M02
    |  i. s.: L. eburneus WBSJ82
    |         L. elmorei FP64
    |         L. kamtschatschensis SU93
    |         L. leucopterus S70
    |         L. sabini M03
    |         L. teruelensis (Villalta 1963) [=Totanus teruelensis, Tringa teruelensis] M02
    |--L. saundersi JT12
    `--+--+--+--L. genei JT12
       |  |  `--L. philadelphia JT12
       |  `--+--+--L. serranus JT12
       |     |  `--+--L. bulleri Hutton 1871 JT12, WH02
       |     |     `--L. novaehollandiae Stephens 1826 JT12, WH02
       |     |          |--L. n. novaehollandiae [incl. Bruchigavia longirostris Masters 1877] WS48
       |     |          `--L. n. forsteri (Mathews 1912) (see below for synonymy) WS48
       |     `--+--+--L. brunnicephalus JT12
       |        |  `--L. maculipennis JT12
       |        `--+--L. ridibundus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
       |           `--+--L. hartlaubii JT12 [=L. novaehollandiae hartlaubii HR96]
       |              `--+--L. cirrocephalus JT12
       |                 `--L. scopulinus Forster 1844 JT12, R85 [=L. novaehollandiae scopulinus R85]
       `--+--+--+--L. modestus JT12
          |  |  `--Leucophaeus scoresbii JT12
          |  `--+--L. pipixcan JT12
          |     `--+--L. atricilla JT12
          |        `--L. fuliginosus JT12
          `--+--+--L. relictus JT12
             |  `--+--L. ichthyaetus JT12
             |     `--+--L. audouinii JT12
             |        `--+--L. leucophthalmus JT12
             |           `--+--L. hemprichii JT12
             |              `--L. melanocephalus JT12
             `--+--+--L. belcheri JT12
                |  `--+--L. atlanticus JT12
                |     `--L. crassirostris JT12
                `--+--L. pacificus Latham 1801 JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--+--L. canus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
                      `--+--+--L. livens JT12
                         |  `--+--L. delawarensis JT12
                         |     `--L. heermanni JT12
                         `--+--L. occidentalis JT12
                            `--+--+--+--L. argentatus JT12
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. argentatus SU93
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. atlantis [=L. fuscus atlantis] FP64
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. birulai FP64
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. heuglini SU93 [=L. fuscus heuglini FP64]
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. mongolicus SU93 (see below for synonymy)
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. omissus FP64
                               |  |  |    |--L. a. smithsonianus FP64
                               |  |  |    `--L. a. vegae SU93
                               |  |  `--L. hyperboreus JT12
                               |  `--+--L. marinus JT12
                               |     `--+--L. armenicus JT12 [=L. argentatus armenicus FP64, L. fuscus armenicus FP64]
                               |        `--L. michahellis JT12 (see below for synonymy)
                               `--+--+--L. dominicanus Lichtenstein 1823 JT12, WH02
                                  |  |    |--L. d. dominicanus HR96
                                  |  |    `--L. d. vetula HR96
                                  |  `--L. fuscus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, ME04
                                  |       |--L. f. fuscus FP64
                                  |       |--L. f. antelius FP64
                                  |       `--L. f. graellsii FP64
                                  `--+--+--L. californicus JT12
                                     |  `--L. schistisagus JT12
                                     `--+--L. cachinnans JT12 (see below for synonymy)
                                        `--+--L. glaucoides JT12
                                           |    |--L. g. glaucoides FP64
                                           |    `--L. g. kumlieni FP64
                                           `--+-L. glaucescens JT12
                                              `--L. thayeri JT12

Inorganic: Larus ridibundus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Nomen nudum: Larus burdigalensis Lucazeau 1959 M02

Larus argentatus mongolicus SU93 [=L. cachinnans mongolicus VP89, L. fuscus mongolicus FP64]

Larus cachinnans JT12 [=L. argentatus cachinnans FP64, L. fuscus cachinnans FP64]

Larus michahellis JT12 [=L. argentatus michahelles FP64, L. fuscus michahelles FP64]

Larus novaehollandiae forsteri (Mathews 1912) [=Bruchigavia noveahollandiae forsteri; incl. Gelastes gouldi Bonaparte 1854 (preoc.)] WS48

Larus pacificus Latham 1801 JT12, WS48 [=Gabianus pacificus S70; incl. L. georgii Vigors 1827 WS48, L. pacificus georgii M03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1-2): 1-17.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S70] Schnell, G. D. 1970. A phenetic study of the suborder Lari (Aves) I. Methods and results of principal components analysis. Systematic Zoology 19 (1): 35-57.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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