Fringillidae

Brambling Fringilla montifringilla, photographed by Mark Gurney.


Belongs within: Passeroidea.
Contains: Euphonia, Carduelinae.

The Fringillidae, finches, are a family of mostly granivorous birds found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. Though often brownish or greenish in their base coloration, many fringillid finches are colorfully marked. Some tropical fringillids, the Neotropical genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, and the Hawaiian honeycreepers of the Drepaninini, include particularly colorful species that have become frugivorous or nectarivorous rather than granivorous. The chaffinches of the genus Fringilla, found in Eurasia and northern Africa, differ from the cardueline finches in their relatively short upper bills and lack of a crop; they also feed nestlings on insects rather than seeds.

<==Fringillidae [Fringilladae]
    |--+--+--Euphonia JT12
    |  |  `--Chlorophonia BKB15
    |  |       |--C. callophrys JT12
    |  |       |--C. cyanea JT12
    |  |       |--C. flavirostris JT12
    |  |       |--C. occipitalis BKB15
    |  |       `--C. pyrrhophrys JT12
    |  `--Carduelinae JT12
    `--+--Carpospiza brachydactyla BKB15
       `--Fringilla Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [Fringillinae, Fringillini]
            |  i. s.: F. trochanteria Giebel 1847 M02
            |--F. montifringilla Linnaeus 1758 JT12, CC10
            `--+--*F. coelebs Linnaeus 1758 CC10, JT12, M02 [=F. caelebs (l. c.) CC10]
               |    |--F. c. coelebs R85
               |    `--F. c. gengleri Kleinschmidt 1909 R85
               `--F. teydea JT12

Fringillidae incertae sedis:
  Chaunoproctus ferreorostris (Vigors 1829) WBSJ82, I92
  Coturniculus peruanus SS66
  Rhynchostruthus JT12
    |--R. louisae JT12
    |--R. percivali JT12
    `--R. socotranus JT12
  Neospiza concolor JT12
  Callacanthis burtoni JT12
  Zamelodia ludoviciana S18
  Astragalinus psaltria S18
    |--A. p. psaltria S18
    `--A. p. croceus S18

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS