Wels Silurus glanis, photographed by Piotr Janeczek.

Belongs within: Otocephala.
Contains: Trichomycteridae, Clariidae, Pimelodidae, Arioida, Claroteidae, Plotosidae, Ictaluridae, Bagridae, Loricaroidei.

The Siluriformes are the catfishes, an order of scale-less fishes with distinctive barbels around the mouth. Catfishes include both freshwater and marine representatives, with the former being more diverse.

Characters (from Bond 1996): True scales absent, skin bare or with bony plates which may bear dermal denticles. Subopercular, symplectic and parietal bones absent. Weberian apparatus of five or more vertebrae with second to fourth (or fifth) vertebrae fused. Barbels present around mouth. Premaxillary teeth present; maxillary teeth absent. Intermuscular bones absent. Pectoral and dorsal fins usually with large spines at leading edges; spines with locking mechanism holding them erect, often with associated venom glands. Adipose fin usually present.

Siluriformes [Nematognathi, Siluri, Siluroidiformes]
    |  i. s.: Andinichthys Gayet 1988 [Andinichthyidae] GM01
    |         Astroblepus Humboldt 1805 TP86 [Astroblepidae R-HH05]
    |           `--A. pholeter Collette 1962 TP86
    |         Bagre marinus MK83
    |         Liobagrus reini Hilgendorf 1878 I92
    |         Aspredinidae [Bunocephalidae] R-HH05
    |         Helogenidae B96
    |         Hypophthalmidae B96
    |         Nematogenyidae R-HH05
    |         Scoloplacidae R-HH05
    |         Heteropneustes [Heteropneustidae, Saccobranchidae] AT05
    |           `--H. fossilis (Bloch 1794) AT05 [=Saccobranchus fossilis B96]
    |         Olyridae B96
    |         Parakysidae B96
    |         Ompok B96
    |         Kryptopterus B96
    |         Plecostomus B96
    |         Ancistrus B96
    |         Doiichthys [Doiichthyidae] M58
    |           `--D. novaeguineae Weber 1913 M58
    |         Anchariidae NS03
    |         Bucklandium diluvii König 1825 M02
    |--Diplomystidae R-HH05
    |    |--Diplomystes chilensis [=Diplomyste chilensis] B96
    |    `--Olivaichthys viedmensis B96
    `--Siluroidei R-HH05
         |--Hypsidoridae R-HH05
         `--+--Cetopsis Agassiz 1929 TP86 [Cetopsidae R-HH05]
            |    `--C. caecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819) TP86
            `--+--Heptapteridae R-HH05
               |--Trichomycteridae R-HH05
               |--Amphiliidae R-HH05
               |--Australoglanididae R-HH05
               |--Cranoglanididae R-HH05
               |--Clariidae R-HH05
               |--Amblycipitidae R-HH05
               |--Akysidae R-HH05
               |--Sisoridae R-HH05
               |--Erethistidae R-HH05
               |--Pimelodidae R-HH05
               |--Arioida R-HH05
               |--Claroteidae R-HH05
               |--Plotosidae R-HH05
               |--Lacantunia Rodiles-Hernández, Hendrickson et al. 2005 [Lacantuniidae] R-HH05
               |    `--*L. enigmatica Rodiles-Hernández, Hendrickson et al. 2005 R-HH05
               |--Chaca M58 [Chacidae R-HH05]
               |    `--C. chaca M58
               |--Malapterurus B96 [Malapteruridae R-HH05]
               |    `--M. electricus B96
               |--Pangasiidae R-HH05
               |    |--Pangasianodon gigas B96
               |    `--Pangasius sanitwongsei USDI77
               |--Schilbe EA03 [Schilbeidae R-HH05]
               |    |--S. intermedius EA03
               |    `--S. mandibularis EA03
               |--+--Ictaluridae R-HH05
               |  `--Bagridae SBW95
               |--Loricaroidei R-HH05
               `--Siluridae R-HH05
                    |--Wallagonia attu B96
                    `--Silurus B96
                         |--S. asotus T90
                         |--S. biwaensis T90
                         |--S. glanis Linnaeus 1758 SE08
                         `--S. lithophilus T90

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AT05] Agnese, J.-F., & G. G. Teugels. 2005. Insight into the phylogeny of African Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes): implications for their body shape evolution, biogeography, and taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 546-553.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[EA03] Écoutin, J.-M., & J.-J. Albaret. 2003. Relation longueur-poids pour 52 espèces de poissons des estuaires et lagunes de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cybium 27 (1): 3-9.

[GM01] Gayet, M., L. G. Marshall, T. Sempere, F. J. Meunier, H. Cappetta & J-C. Rage. 2001. Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiostratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169: 39-68.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1-126.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: A check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97-369 (reprinted 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[NS03] Ng, H. H., & J. S. Sparks. 2003. The ariid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Ariidae) of Madagascar, with the description of two new species. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 735: 1-21.

[R-HH05] Rodiles-Hernández, R., D. A. Hendrickson, J. G. Lundberg & J. M. Humphries. 2005. Lacantunia enigmatica (Teleostei: Siluriformes) a new and phylogenetically puzzling freshwater fish from Mesoamerica. Zootaxa 1000: 1-24.

[SE08] Sevcsik, A. & T. Erös. 2008. A revised catalogue of freshwater fishes of Hungary and the neighbouring countries in the Hungarian Natural History Museum (Pisces). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 331-383.

[SBW95] Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz & L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146: 1-389.

[T90] Taguchi, S. 1990. Nihon no Sakana. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[TP86] Thinès, G., & G. Proudlove. 1986. Pisces. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 709-733. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

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