Corvidae

Common jay Garrulus glandarius, from here.


Belongs within: Corvoidea.
Contains: Corvus.

The Corvidae include the crows, jays and magpies, and are relatively large omnivorous passerines found worldwide. Many corvids are strikingly coloured.

Characters (from Austin 1961): Bill strong, unnotched; nostrils usually covered by forward-directed bristles. Wings with ten primaries. Legs large and strong; tarsi scaled in front, smooth behind, terminating in a ridge.

<==Corvidae [Corvinae, Garrulinae, Monedulidae]
    |  i. s.: Cissilopha melanocyanea FS55
    |           |--C. m. melanocyanea FS55
    |           `--C. m. chavezi FS55
    |         Miocorvus Lambrecht 1933 [=Miocorax Lambrecht 1933] M02
    |           `--*M. larteti (Milne-Edwards 1871) [=Corvus larteti] M02
    |         Crypsirina Vieillot 1816 [Crypsirinidae] B94
    |           |--C. formosae VP89
    |           |    |--C. f. formosae VP89
    |           |    `--C. f. sinica VP89
    |           `--C. varians S89 [=Corvus varians W66]
    |         Platylophus Swainson 1832 [incl. Lophocitta Gray 1841; Lophocittidae] B94
    |         Dendrocitta Gould 1833 [Dendrocittidae] B94
    |           |--D. himalayensis S89
    |           |--D. leucogastra RD02
    |           `--D. vagabunda RD02
    |         Zavattariornis Moltoni 1938 [Zavattariornithidae] B94
    |         Psilorhinus Rüppell 1837 B94
    |         Physocorax moneduloides S13
    |         Gazzola typica S13
    |--+--Temnurus Lesson 1831 JF06, B94 [Temnuridae]
    |  |    `--T. temnurus JF06
    |  `--Pyrrhocorax Tunstall 1771 JF06, B94 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--*P. pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |       `--P. graculus (Linnaeus 1766) (see below for synonymy) M02
    `--+--+--Cissa Boie 1826 JF06, B94 [Cissidae]
       |  |    |--C. chinensis A61
       |  |    `--C. ornata A61
       |  `--Urocissa JF06
       |       |--U. erythrorhyncha VP89
       |       `--U. sinensis S66
       `--+--+--Cyanopica cyana JF06
          |  `--Perisoreus JF06
          |       |--P. canadensis FP64
          |       |--P. infaustus ZJM03
          |       `--P. internigrans JF06
          `--+--Cyanolyca JF06
             |    |--C. turcosa A61
             |    `--C. viridicyana JF06
             `--+--+--Garrulus Brisson 1760 JF06, M02
                |  |    |--G. glandarius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Corvus glandarius] M02
                |  |    |    |--G. g. glandarius VP89
                |  |    |    |--G. g. brandtii T89
                |  |    |    `--G. g. sinensis VP89
                |  |    |--G. leucotis S89
                |  |    `--G. lidthi Bonaparte 1850 I92
                |  `--+--+--Ptilostomus afer JF06
                |     |  `--Podoces JF06
                |     |       |--P. biddulphi JF06
                |     |       `--P. hendersoni JF06
                |     `--+--Pica Brisson 1760 JF06, M02 [Picacidae]
                |        |    `--P. pica (Linnaeus 1758) [=Corvus pica] M02
                |        |         |--P. p. pica I92
                |        |         `--P. p. sericea Gould 1845 I92
                |        `--+--Corvus JF06
                |           `--Nucifraga Brisson 1760 JF06, B94 [Nucifragidae]
                |                |--N. caryocatactes (Linnaeus 1758) [=Corvus caryocatactes] M02
                |                `--N. columbiana FP64
                `--+--+--Calocitta formosa JF06
                   |  |    |--C. f. formosa FS55
                   |  |    `--C. f. pompata FS55
                   |  `--Cyanocorax Boie 1826 JF06, B94 [Cyanocoracidae]
                   |       |--C. beecheii SWK87
                   |       |--C. caeruleus CM07
                   |       |--C. chrysops JF06
                   |       |--C. cyanomelas FP64
                   |       `--C. violaceus SS66
                   `--+--Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus JF06
                      |--Aphelocoma Cabanis 1851 JF06, B94 [Aphelocomidae]
                      |    |--A. californica JF06
                      |    |--A. coerulescens C98
                      |    `--A. ultramarina C98
                      `--Cyanocitta Strickland 1845 JF06, B94 [Cyanocittidae]
                           |--C. cristata FP64
                           |--C. stelleri WH02
                           `--C. ultramarina FP64

Pyrrhocorax Tunstall 1771 JF06, B94 [incl. Fregilus Cuvier 1816 B94; Fregilidae, Pyrrhocoracidae]

Pyrrhocorax graculus (Linnaeus 1766) [=Corvus graculus; incl. P. graculus vetus Kretzoi in Mourer-Chauviré 1975] M02

*Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus 1758) [=Upupa pyrrhocorax; incl. P. pyrrhocorax primigenius Milne-Edwards 1875] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[C98] Cockburn, A. 1998. Evolution of helping behavior in cooperatively breeding birds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 141-177.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 339-373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RD02] Robin, V. V., & P. Davidar. 2002. The vertical stratification of birds in mixed species flocks at Parambikulam, south India: a comparison between two habitats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 389-399.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Exhibition of a collection of mammals and birds from Japan. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 80-81.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537-556.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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