Corvidae

Common jay Garrulus glandarius, from here.


Belongs within: Corvoidea.
Contains: Corvus, Cyanocorax.

The Corvidae include the crows, jays and magpies, and are relatively large omnivorous passerines found worldwide. Many corvids are strikingly coloured.

Characters (from Austin 1961): Bill strong, unnotched; nostrils usually covered by forward-directed bristles. Wings with ten primaries. Legs large and strong; tarsi scaled in front, smooth behind, terminating in a ridge.

<==Corvidae [Corvinae, Garrulinae, Monedulidae]
    |  i. s.: Cissilopha melanocyanea FS55
    |           |--C. m. melanocyanea FS55
    |           `--C. m. chavezi FS55
    |         Psilorhinus Rüppell 1837 B94
    |         Physocorax moneduloides S13
    |         Gazzola typica S13
    |--Miocitta galbreathi Brodkorb 1972 JM14, U93
    `--+--+--Pyrrhocorax Tunstall 1771 JT12, M02 [incl. Fregilus Cuvier 1816 B94; Fregilidae, Pyrrhocoracidae]
       |  |    |--P. graculus (Linnaeus 1766) (see below for synonymy) M02
       |  |    `--P. pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) M02
       |  `--+--Dendrocitta Gould 1833 JT12, B94 [Dendrocittidae]
       |     |    |--D. bayleyi JT12
       |     |    |--D. formosae JT12
       |     |    |--D. frontalis JT12
       |     |    |--D. himalayensis S89
       |     |    |--D. leucogastra JT12
       |     |    |--D. occipitalis JT12
       |     |    `--D. vagabunda JT12
       |     `--+--+--Platysmurus leucopterus JT12
       |        |  `--Temnurus Lesson 1831 JT12, B94 [Temnuridae]
       |        |       `--T. temnurus JT12
       |        `--Crypsirina Vieillot 1816 JT12, CC10 [=Cryptorhina Wagler 1827 CC10; Crypsirinidae]
       |             |--C. cucullata JT12
       |             |--C. formosae VP89
       |             |    |--C. f. formosae VP89
       |             |    `--C. f. sinica VP89
       |             |--C. temia JT12
       |             `--C. varians (Lath. 1790) [=Corvus varians] W66
       `--+--+--Cissa Boie 1826 JT12, B94 [Cissidae]
          |  |    |--C. chinensis JT12
          |  |    |--C. hypoleuca JT12
          |  |    |--C. jefferyi HSS13
          |  |    |--C. ornata A61
          |  |    `--C. thalassina JT12
          |  `--Urocissa JT12
          |       |--U. caerulea JT12
          |       |--U. erythrorhyncha (Gmel. 1788) [=Corvus erythrorhynchus; incl. U. sinensis Dav. & Oust. 1877] M01
          |       |--U. flavirostris JT12
          |       |--U. ornata JT12
          |       `--U. whiteheadi JT12
          `--+--+--Cyanopica BKB15
             |  |    |--C. cooki BKB15
             |  |    `--C. cyanus JT12
             |  `--Perisoreus JT12
             |       |--P. canadensis JT12
             |       `--+--P. infaustus (Linné 1766) JT12, M01 [=Lanius infaustus M01]
             |          `--P. internigrans JT12
             `--+--+--Corvus BKB15
                |  `--+--+--Zavattariornis Moltoni 1938 BKB15, B94 [Zavattariornithidae]
                |     |  |    `--Z. stresemanni JT12
                |     |  `--Pica Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [Picacidae]
                |     |       |--+--P. hudsonia JT12
                |     |       |  `--P. nuttalli JT12
                |     |       `--P. pica (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Corvus pica M02]
                |     |            |--P. p. pica I92
                |     |            `--P. p. sericea Gould 1845 I92
                |     `--+--+--Ptilostomus afer BKB15
                |        |  `--Podoces JT12
                |        |       |--P. biddulphi JT12
                |        |       |--P. hendersoni JT12
                |        |       |--P. panderi JT12
                |        |       `--P. pleskei JT12
                |        `--Garrulus Brisson 1760 JT12, M02
                |             |--G. brandti Eversm. 1874 M01 [=G. glandarius brandtii T89]
                |             |--G. glandarius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Corvus glandarius] M02
                |             |    |--G. g. glandarius VP89
                |             |    `--G. g. sinensis VP89
                |             |--G. lanceolatus JT12
                |             |--G. leucotis S89
                |             `--G. lidthi Bonaparte 1850 I92
                `--+--Cyanolyca JT12
                   |    |--+--+--C. argentigula JT12
                   |    |  |  `--C. pumilo JT12
                   |    |  `--+--C. mirabilis JT12
                   |    |     `--C. nana JT12
                   |    `--+--+--C. cucullata JT12
                   |       |  `--C. pulchra JT12
                   |       `--+--C. armillata JT12
                   |          `--+--C. turcosa JT12
                   |             `--C. viridicyanus JT12
                   `--+--Cyanocorax JT12
                      `--+--Cyanocitta Strickland 1845 BKB15, B94 [Cyanocittidae]
                         |    |--C. cristata B62
                         |    |    |--C. c. cristata B62
                         |    |    |--C. c. bromia B62
                         |    |    `--C. c. burleighi Bond 1962 B62
                         |    |--C. stelleri JT12
                         |    `--C. ultramarina FP64
                         `--+--Gymnorhinus Maximillian 1841 BKB15, C84
                            |    `--G. cyanocephalus BKB15
                            `--Aphelocoma Cabanis 1851 BKB15, B94 [Aphelocomidae]
                                 |--A. unicolor BKB15
                                 `--+--+--A. wollweberi BKB15
                                    |  `--+--A. potosina BKB15
                                    |     `--A. ultramarina BKB15
                                    `--+--+--A. coerulescens BKB15
                                       |  `--A. insularis BKB15
                                       `--+--A. californica BKB15
                                          `--+--A. sumichrasti BKB15
                                             `--A. woodhouseii BKB15

Pyrrhocorax graculus (Linnaeus 1766) [=Corvus graculus; incl. P. graculus vetus Kretzoi in Mourer-Chauviré 1975] M02

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus 1758) [=Upupa pyrrhocorax; incl. P. pyrrhocorax primigenius Milne-Edwards 1875] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B62] Bond, G. M. 1962. A new blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) from Newfoundland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 205–206.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JM14] Jarvis, E. D., S. Mirarab, A. J. Aberer, B. Li, P. Houde, C. Li, S. Y. W. Ho, B. C. Faircloth, B. Nabholz, J. T. Howard, A. Suh, C. C. Weber, R. R. de Fonseca, J. Li, F. Zhang, H. Li, L. Zhou, N. Narula, L. Liu, G. Ganapathy, B. Boussau, M. S. Bayzid, V. Zavidovych, S. Subramanian, T. Gabaldón, S. Capella-Gutiérrez, J. Huerta-Cepas, B. Rekepalli, K. Munch, M. Schierup, B. Lindow, W. C. Warren, D. Ray, R. E. Green, M. W. Bruford, X. Zhan, A. Dixon, S. Li, N. Li, Y. Huang, E. P. Derryberry, M. F. Bertelsen, F. H. Sheldon, R. T. Brumfield, C. V. Mello, P. V. Lovell, M. Wirthlin, M. P. Cruz Schneider, F. Prosdocimi, J. A. Samaniego, A. M. Vargas Velazquez, A. Alfaro-Núñez, P. F. Campos, B. Petersen, T. Sitcheritz-Ponten, A. Pas, T. Bailey, P. Scofield, M. Bunce, D. M. Lambert, Q. Zhou, P. Perelman, A. C. Driskell, B. Shapiro, Z. Xiong, Y. Zeng, S. Liu, Z. Li, B. Liu, K. Wu, J. Xiao, X. Yinqi, Q. Zheng, Y. Zhang, H. Yang, J. Wang, L. Smeds, F. E. Rheindt, M. Braun, J. Fjeldså, L. Orlando, F. K. Barker, K. A. Jønsson, W. Johnson, K.-P. Koepfli, S. O'Brien, D. Haussler, O. A. Ryder, C. Rahbek, E. Willerslev, G. R. Graves, T. C. Glenn, J. McCormack, D. Burt, H. Ellegren, P. Alström, S. V. Edwards, A. Stamatakis, D. P. Mindell, J. Cracraft, E. L. Braun, T. Warnow, W. Jun, M. T. P. Gilbert & G. Zhang. 2014. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346 (6215): 1320–1331.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

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