Lapwing Vanellus vanellus, from here.

Belongs within: Charadriiformes.
Contains: Charadrius.

The Charadriidae contains the plovers, relatively plump shorebirds with bills shorter than their heads and slightly swollen at the tip (Austin 1961). Charadriids Have been divided between the typical plovers of the Charadriinae and the generally larger, more inland-dwelling lapwings of the Vanellinae. However, the phylogenetic analysis by Jetz et al. (2012) does not support monophyly of the Charadriinae (or indeed of the genus Charadrius). Instead, the lapwings are placed as sister to a clade including the greater number of Charadrius species, together with the red-kneed dotterel Erythrogonys cinctus of Australasia and the wrybill Anarhynchus frontalis of New Zealand. The latter is notable as the only bird species with its bill curved to one side (the right).

<==Charadriidae [Charadrioidea]
    |--+--Oreopholus ruficollis JT12
    |  `--+--+--Phegornis mitchellii JT12
    |     |  `--‘Charadrius’ modestus JT12
    |     `--+--Eudromias morinellus JT12
    |        `--+--+--‘Charadrius’ vociferus JT12
    |           |  `--+--‘Charadrius’ semipalmatus JT12
    |           |     `--+--‘Charadrius’ hiaticula Linnaeus 1758 JT12, R85
    |           |        |    |--C. h. hiaticula R85
    |           |        |    `--C. h. tundrae R85
    |           |        `--‘Charadrius’ melodus JT12
    |           `--+--+--Elseyornis melanops Vieillot 1818 JT12, R85 (see below for synonymy)
    |              |  `--Thinornis rubricollis JT12 [=Charadrius rubricollis M03]
    |              `--+--‘Charadrius’ dubius JT12
    |                 |    |--C. d. dubius VP89
    |                 |    `--C. d. curonicus VP89
    |                 `--Thinornis novaeseelandiae (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--+--Erythrogonys cinctus Gould 1838 JT12, WS48 [incl. E. cinctus mixtus Mathews 1912 WS48]
       |  `--+--Charadrius JT12
       |     `---Anarhynchus Quoy & Gaimard 1830 JT12, B94 [Anarhynchinae]
       |           `--A. frontalis Quoy & Gaimard 1830 JT12, WH02 [=Charadrius frontalis WH02]
       `--Vanellus Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
            |  i. s.: V. albiceps JT12
            |         V. armatus C04 [=Hoplopterus armatus A61]
            |         V. cayanus JT12 [=Hoplopterus cayanus SS66]
            |         V. cinereus SU93 [=Microsarcops cinereus T89]
            |         V. coronatus JT12
            |         V. crassirostris JT12
            |         V. duvaucelii SU93
            |         ‘Lobivanellus’ goensis B66
            |         V. gregarius SU93
            |         V. indicus SU93 [=Lobivanellus indica A61]
            |           |--V. i. indicus SU93
            |           `--V. i. atronuchalis SU93
            |         V. leucurus SU93
            |         ‘Lobivanellus’ lobatus S66b
            |         V. lugubris JT12
            |         V. macropterus SU93
            |         V. malarbaricus JT12
            |         V. melanocephalus (Rüppell 1845) JT12, S05 (see below for synonymy)
            |         V. melanopterus (Cretzschmar 1829) JT12, S05 (see below for synonymy)
            |         V. selysii Beneden 1871 M02
            |         V. senegallus JT12
            |         V. spinosus JT12 [=Hoplopterus spinosus RN72]
            |         V. superciliosus JT12
            |         V. tectus JT12
            |         V. tricolor M03
            |--+--V. chilensis JT12
            |  `--V. resplendens JT12
            `--+--V. miles (Boddaert 1783) JT12, WS48 [=Tringa miles WS48, Lobibyx miles WS48]
               |    |--V. m. miles R85
               |    `--V. m. novaehollandiae Stephens 1819 R85 [=Lobibyx novaehollandiae FST81]
               `--V. vanellus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Tringa vanellus M02]

Charadriidae incertae sedis:
  Dolichopterus Milne-Edwards 1868 FP64, M02 [=Dolicopterus Aymard 1856 (n. n.) M02]
    `--*D. viator Nilne-Edwards 1868 [=Dolicopterus viator Aymard 1856 (n. n.)] M02
  Aegialitis SS66
    |--A. collaris SS66
    `--A. tricollaris S66a
  Heteractitis incanus [incl. H. brevipes] S13
  Heteropygia S13
    |--H. acuminata [incl. Schoeniclus australis] S13
    `--H. fuscicollis D56
  Zonifer tricolor (Vieillot 1818) [=Charadrius tricolor; incl. Z. tricolor gwendolenae Mathews 1912] WS48

Elseyornis melanops Vieillot 1818 JT12, R85 [=Charadrius melanops M03; incl. C. melanops marngli Mathews 1912 WS48]

Thinornis novaeseelandiae (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WH02 [=Charadrius novaeseelandiae HWT01; incl. T. rossii HWT01]

Vanellus Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [incl. Hoplopterus Bonaparte 1831 B94, Hoploxypterus Bonaparte 1856 B94, Lobibyx Heine 1890 B94, Lobivanellus Gray 1841 B94, Sarciophorus Gray 1841 B94; Hoploxypterinae, Lobibyxinae, Lobivanellinae, Sarciophorinae, Vanellinae B94]

Vanellus melanocephalus (Rüppell 1845) JT12, S05 [=Lobivanellus melanocephalus S05, Tylibyx melanocephalus S05]

Vanellus melanopterus (Cretzschmar 1829) JT12, S05 [=Charadrius melanopterus S05, Stephanibyx melanopterus S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568-571.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1-179.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[FST81] Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S66a] Sclater, P. L. 1866a. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21-23.

[S66b] Sclater, P. L. 1866b. Remarks on recent additions to the Society's menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 203.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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