Phthiracarus setosus, from here.

Belongs within: Ptyctima.
Contains: Notophthiracarus, Atropacarus, Hoplophthiracarus, Rhacaplacarus, Steganacarus, Phthiracarus (Phthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Archiphthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus).

The Phthiracaridae are a group of box mites with a broad anogenital region, with an articulating cuticle between the anogenital region and an overhanging tectum of the notogaster. This articulation presumably allows the anogenital region to be lowered, expanding the effective volume of the notogaster and allowing withdrawal of the legs (Norton 2001). The cuticle is mineralised to varying degrees with calcium carbonate, in some species to the point of being brittle and opalescent (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Phthiracarids can be divided between two main lineages. In Phthiracarus, the interlamellar setae are long and smooth, and the body surface is smooth or finely punctate. The Steganacarinae and Atropacarinae, in contrast, have the interlamellar setae thickened and/or the body surface sculptured. The steganacarine and atropacarine groups can be distinguished by the position of seta d on the fourth tibia: in steganacarine taxa, this seta is long and removed from the accompanying solenidion, whereas in atropacarine taxa the seta is short and closely coupled with the solenidion (Balogh & Balogh 1992). Most steganacarines (forming the tribe Steganacarini) have the surface of the body commonly sculpted with concavities and furrows on the rear of the prodorsum; such ornamentation is absent in Plonaphacarus. Within the Atropacarinae, the genera Notophthiracarus and Atropacarus have the genital setae forming a single line whereas Austrophthiracarus and Protophthiracarus have seta g6 displaced laterally to sit outside g5; this latter state is shared with members of the Steganacarinae (Niedbała 1986b).

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Body ptychoid (legs can be withdrawn and aspis closed against notogaster and ventral region), only slightly compressed laterally; notogaster without transverse sutures; anogenital region occupying entire length of ventral region, wide, almost U-shaped, resembling four wings of a French window, genital and anal plates not separated by a ventral plate.

<==Phthiracaridae [Phthiracarea, Phthiracarini, Phthiracaroidea, Steganacaridae] S04
    |--+--Atropacarinae [Atropacarini] N91
    |  |    |  i. s.: Arphthiracarus Niedbała 1994 CH98
    |  |    |           |--*A. latebrosus (Niedbała 1982) CH98 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    |           |--A. allocotos Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |    |           |--A. brasiliensis (Niedbała 1988) N07
    |  |    |           |--A. inelegans (Niedbała 1986) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    |           |--A. mirandus (Niedbała 1988) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    |           |--A. pervalidus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |    |           `--A. saucius (Niedbała 1988) N07 [=Austrophthiracarus saucius N07, Rhacaplacarus saucius S04]
    |  |    |--+--Notophthiracarus N91
    |  |    |  `--Atropacarus N91
    |  |    `--+--Austrophthiracarus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 N91, N86b [incl. Phthirarica Mahunka 1982 S04]
    |  |       |    |--*A. radiatus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 CH98 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |    |--A. admirabilis (Niedbała 1982) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |    |--A. caudatus (Balogh & Mahunka 1977) N07
    |  |       |    |--A. contrarius Niedbała 1985 N91
    |  |       |    |--A. latior (Niedbała 1982) SN98
    |  |       |    |--A. nexilis Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |       |    |--A. phaleratus (Niedbała 1982) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |    |--A. retrorsus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |       |    |--A. ridiculus (Mahunka 1982) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |    |--A. tragardhi (Niedbała 1987) CH98 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |    `--A. zeuktos Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |       `--Protophthiracarus Balogh 1972 N91, N86b [=Notophthiracarus Balogh & Mahunka 1967 non Ramsay 1966 S04]
    |  |            |--*P. chilensis (Balogh & Mahunka 1967) S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |            |--P. andinus (Balogh 1984) [=Phthirarica andina, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) andinus] S04
    |  |            |--P. brasiliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1980 S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |            |--P. clandestinus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |            |--P. daimonios (Niedbała 2000) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |  |            |--P. finitimus Niedbała 2002 N07 [=Hoplophorella finitima S04]
    |  |            |--P. heteropilosus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |  |            |--P. neotrichus (Wallwork 1966) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |  |            |--P. permirus Niedbała 1991 N07 [=Hoplophorella permirus S04]
    |  |            |--P. strigosus (Niedbała 1984) S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |            `--P. ventosus (Hammer 1961) S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--Steganacarinae N91
    |       |--Plonaphacarus Niedbała 1986 N91, S04 [Plonaphacarini]
    |       |    |--*P. eximius (Niedbała 1982) CH98 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |    |--P. baculus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |       |    `--P. kugohi (Aoki 1959) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--Steganacarini N86b
    |            |--Hoplophthiracarus N91
    |            `--+--Rhacaplacarus N91
    |               `--Steganacarus N91
    `--Phthiracarus Perty 1841 N91, S04 [Phthiracarinae]
         |  i. s.: P. arduus S22
         |         P. forsslundi N01
         |         P. sphaerulus J37
         |         ‘Hoplophorella’ variolosa Berlese 1888 N86a
         |--P. (Phthiracarus) S04
         |--P. (Archiphthiracarus) S04
         |--P. (Metaphthiracarus Aoki 1980) S04
         |    |--P. (M.) setosus (Banks 1895) S04 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--P. (M.) jumbongiensis (Niedbała 2002) [=Austrophthiracarus jumbongiensis] S04
         `--P. (Neophthiracarus) S04

Nomina nuda: Phthiracarus meridionalis Hammen 1959 N86a
             Phthiracarus ponticus Krivolutsky 1975 N86a

Arphthiracarus inelegans (Niedbała 1986) N07 [=Hoplophthiracarus inelegans N07, Austrophthiracarus inelegans N86a, Notophthiracarus inelegans S04; incl. H. atypicus Mahunka 1988 S04]

*Arphthiracarus latebrosus (Niedbała 1982) CH98 [=Hoplophthiracarus latebrosus S04, Austrophthiracarus latebrosus N86a, Notophthiracarus latebrosus S04]

Arphthiracarus mirandus (Niedbała 1988) N07 [=Austrophthiracarus mirandus N07, Rhacaplacarus mirandus S04]

Austrophthiracarus admirabilis (Niedbała 1982) N07 [=Neophthiracarus admirabilis N07, Calyptophthiracarus admirabilis N86a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) admirabilis S04]

Austrophthiracarus phaleratus (Niedbała 1982) N07 [=Neophthiracarus phaleratus N07, Calyptophthiracarus phaleratus N86a, Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) phaleratus S04]

*Austrophthiracarus radiatus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 CH98 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) radiatus S04, Calyptophthiracarus radiatus H98; incl. Austrophthiracarus similis Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04, Calyptophthiracarus similis CH98]

Austrophthiracarus ridiculus (Mahunka 1982) N07 [=*Phthirarica ridicula S04, Notophthiracarus (*Phthirarica) ridiculus S04]

Austrophthiracarus tragardhi (Niedbała 1987) CH98 [=Calyptophthiracarus tragardhi N87, Notophthiracarus (Phthirarica) traegardhi S04]

Phthiracarus (Metaphthiracarus) setosus (Banks 1895) S04 [=Hoplophora setosa S04; incl. *Metaphthiracarus bacillatus Aoki 1980 S04, Phthiracarus falcatus Hammer 1977 S04, Archiphthiracarus filiferus Mahunka 1982 S04, P. filiferus N84b]

*Plonaphacarus eximius (Niedbała 1982) CH98 [=Hoplophthiracarus eximius CH98, Rhacaplacarus eximius S04; incl. Steganacarus politus Mahunka 1983 S04]

Plonaphacarus kugohi (Aoki 1959) N07 [=Hoplophthiracarus kugohi CH98; incl. Hoplophthiracarus africanus Mahunka 1984 S04, Hoplophthiracarus minor Mahunka 1991 non H. minus Krivolutsky 1966 S04, Hoplophthiracarus rimosus Mahunka 1985 S04, Hoplophtniracarus (l. c.) siamensis Aoki 1965 CH98, Hoplophthiracarus kugohi siamensis CH98, Hoplophthiracarus wittmeri Bayoumi & Mahunka 1979 S04, Hoplophthiracarus (Plonaphacarus) yoshii Mahunka 1991 S04]

Protophthiracarus brasiliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1980 S04 [=Hoplophthiracarus brasiliensis N86a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) brasiliensis S04]

*Protophthiracarus chilensis (Balogh & Mahunka 1967) S04 [=*Notophthiracarus chilensis CH98, Neophthiracarus chilensis N86b]

Protophthiracarus daimonios (Niedbała 2000) [=Austrophthiracarus daimonios, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) daimonios] S04

Protophthiracarus neotrichus (Wallwork 1966) [=Neophthiracarus neotrichus, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) neotrichus] S04

Protophthiracarus strigosus (Niedbała 1984) S04 [=Neophthiracarus strigosus S04, Calyptophthiracarus strigosus N86a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) strigosus S04]

Protophthiracarus ventosus (Hammer 1961) S04 [=Steganacarus ventosus S04, Neophthiracarus ventosus N84a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) ventosus S04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[J37] Jacot, A. P. 1937. Six new mites from western North Carolina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 163–166.

[N84a] Niedbała, W. 1984a. La redescription des Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) de Marie Hammer. Annales Zoologici 38 (8): 173–203.

[N84b] Niedbała, W. 1984b. Nouveaux Phthiracaridae d'Asie (Acari: Oribatida). Journal of Natural History 18: 829–842.

[N86a] Niedbała, W. 1986a. Catalogue des Phthiracaroidea (Acari), clef pour la détermination des espèces et descriptions d'espèces nouvelles. Annales Zoologici 40 (4): 309–370.

[N86b] Niedbała, W. 1986b. Système des Phthiracaroidea (Oribatida, Euptyctima). Acarologia 27 (1): 61–84.

[N87] Niedbała, W. 1987. Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida) nouveaux d'Australie. Redia 70: 301–375.

[N91] Niedbała, W. 1991. Preliminary hypotheses on the biogeography of the Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 219–231. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[N01] Niedbała, W. 2001. Study of the diversity of Ptyctima (Acari: Oribatida) and quest for centres of its origin: the fauna of the Oriental and Australian regions. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 143–148. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[N07] Niedbała, W. 2007. Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Costa Rica. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 39–42. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

[SN98] Swift, S. F., & R. A. Norton. 1998. Preliminary report on oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) diversity in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 57: 1–44.

Last updated: 7 March 2019.

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