Phthiracaridae

Phthiracarus setosus, from here.


Belongs within: Holonota.
Contains: Notophthiracarus, Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus, Hoplophthiracarus, Steganacarus, Phthiracarus (Phthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Archiphthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus).

The Phthiracaridae are a group of box mites with a broad anogenital region, with an articulating cuticle between the anogenital region and an overhanging tectum of the notogaster. This articulation presumably allows the anogenital region to be lowered, expanding the effective volume of the notogaster and allowing withdrawal of the legs (Norton 2001). The cuticle is mineralised to varying degrees with calcium carbonate, in some species to the point of being brittle and opalescent (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Phthiracarids can be divided between two main lineages. In Phthiracarus, the interlamellar setae are long and smooth, and the body surface is smooth or finely punctate. The Steganacarinae and Atropacarinae, in contrast, have the interlamellar setae thickened and/or the body surface sculptured. The steganacarine and atropacarine groups can be distinguished by the position of seta d on the fourth tibia: in steganacarine taxa, this seta is long and removed from the accompanying solenidion, whereas in atropacarine taxa the seta is short and closely coupled with the solenidion (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Body ptychoid (legs can be withdrawn and aspis closed against notogaster and ventral region), only slightly compressed laterally; notogaster without transverse sutures; anogenital region occupying entire length of ventral region, wide, almost U-shaped, resembling four wings of a French window, genital and anal plates not separated by a ventral plate.

<==Phthiracaridae [Phthiracarea, Phthiracaroidea, Steganacaridae] S04
    |--+--Atropacarinae CH98
    |  |    |--Notophthiracarus N91
    |  |    `--Atropacarus N91
    |  `--Steganacarinae CH98
    |       |--Rhacaplacarus N91
    |       `--+--Hoplophthiracarus N91
    |          `--Steganacarus N91
    `--Phthiracarus Perty 1841 S04 [Phthiracarinae BB92]
         |  i. s.: P. arduus S22
         |         P. forsslundi N01
         |--P. (Phthiracarus) S04
         |--P. (Archiphthiracarus) S04
         |--P. (Metaphthiracarus Aoki 1980) S04
         |    |--P. (M.) setosus (Banks 1895) (see below for synonymy) S04
         |    `--P. (M.) jumbongiensis (Niedbala 2002) [=Austrophthiracarus jumbongiensis] S04
         `--P. (Neophthiracarus) S04

Phthiracaridae incertae sedis:
  Austrophthiracarus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 N07, S04 [incl. Phthirarica Mahunka 1982 S04]
    |--*A. radiatus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 BB92, S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. admirabilis (Niedbała 1982) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. caudatus (Balogh & Mahunka 1977) N07
    |--A. contrarius Niedbala 1985 N91
    |--A. latior (Niedbala 1982) SN98
    |--A. nexilis Niedbała 2003 N07
    |--A. phaleratus (Niedbała 1982) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. retrorsus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |--A. ridiculus (Mahunka 1982) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. tragardhi (Niedbala 1987) CH98, S04 (see below for synonymy)
    `--A. zeuktos Niedbała 2003 N07
  Arphthiracarus Niedbala 1994 N07, CH98
    |--*A. latebrosus (Niedbala 1982) CH98, S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. allocotos Niedbała 2003 N07
    |--A. brasiliensis (Niedbała 1988) N07
    |--A. inelegans (Niedbała 1986) N07 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. mirandus (Niedbała 1988) N07 [=Austrophthiracarus mirandus S04, Rhacaplacarus mirandus S04]
    |--A. pervalidus Niedbała 2003 N07
    `--A. saucius (Niedbała 1988) N07 [=Austrophthiracarus saucius S04, Rhacaplacarus saucius S04]
  Protophthiracarus Balogh 1972 N07, S04 [=Notophthiracarus Balogh & Mahunka 1967 non Ramsay 1966 S04]
    |--*P. chilensis (Balogh & Mahunka 1967) S04 [=*Notophthiracarus chilensis CH98]
    |--P. andinus (Balogh 1984) [=Phthirarica andina, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) andinus] S04
    |--P. brasiliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1980 [=Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) brasiliensis] S04
    |--P. clandestinus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |--P. daimonios (Niedbala 2000) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |--P. finitimus Niedbała 2002 N07 [=Hoplophorella (Hoplophorella) finitima S04]
    |--P. heteropilosus Niedbała 2003 N07
    |--P. neotrichus (Wallwork 1966) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |--P. permirus Niedbała 1991 N07 [=Hoplophorella permirus S04]
    |--P. strigosus (Niedbala 1984) (see below for synonymy) S04
    `--P. ventosus (Hammer 1961) [=Steganacarus ventosus, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) ventosus] S04
  Plonaphacarus Niedbala 1986 N07, S04
    |--*P. eximius (Niedbala 1982) BB92, S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. baculus Niedbała 2003 N07
    `--P. kugohi (Aoki 1959) N07 (see below for synonymy)

Arphthiracarus inelegans (Niedbała 1986) N07 [=Hoplophthiracarus inelegans S04, Notophthiracarus (Notophthiracarus) inelegans S04; incl. H. atypicus Mahunka 1988 S04]

*Arphthiracarus latebrosus (Niedbala 1982) CH98, S04 [=Hoplophthiracarus latebrosus S04, Notophthiracarus (Notophthiracarus) latebrosus S04]

Austrophthiracarus admirabilis (Niedbała 1982) N07 [=Neophthiracarus admirabilis S04, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) admirabilis S04]

Austrophthiracarus phaleratus (Niedbała 1982) N07 [=Neophthiracarus phaleratus S04, Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) phaleratus S04]

*Austrophthiracarus radiatus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 BB92, S04 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) radiatus S04; incl. A. similis Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04, Calyptophthiracarus similis CH98]

Austrophthiracarus ridiculus (Mahunka 1982) N07, S04 [=*Phthirarica ridicula S04, Notophthiracarus (*Phthirarica) ridiculus S04]

Austrophthiracarus tragardhi (Niedbala 1987) CH98, S04 [=Calyptophthiracarus traegardhi S04, Notophthiracarus (Phthirarica) traegardhi S04]

Phthiracarus (Metaphthiracarus) setosus (Banks 1895) [=Hoplophora setosa; incl. *Metaphthiracarus bacillatus Aoki 1980, Phthiracarus falcatus Hammer 1977, Archiphthiracarus filiferus Mahunka 1982] S04

*Plonaphacarus eximius (Niedbala 1982) BB92, S04 [=Hoplophthiracarus eximius S04, Rhacaplacarus eximius S04; incl. Steganacarus politus Mahunka 1983 S04]

Plonaphacarus kugohi (Aoki 1959) N07 [=Hoplophthiracarus kugohi CH98; incl. Hoplophthiracarus africanus Mahunka 1984 S04, Hoplophthiracarus minor Mahunka 1991 S04, Hoplophthiracarus rimosus Mahunka 1985 S04, Hoplophtniracarus (l. c.) siamensis Aoki 1965 CH98, Hoplophthiracarus kugohi siamensis CH98, Hoplophthiracarus wittmeri Bayoumi & Mahunka 1979 S04, Hoplophthiracarus (Plonaphacarus) yoshii Mahunka 1991 S04]

Protophthiracarus daimonios (Niedbala 2000) [=Austrophthiracarus daimonios, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) daimonios] S04

Protophthiracarus neotrichus (Wallwork 1966) [=Neophthiracarus neotrichus, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) neotrichus] S04

Protophthiracarus strigosus (Niedbala 1984) [=Neophthiracarus strigosus, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) strigosus] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB92] Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[N91] Niedbala, W. 1991. Preliminary hypotheses on the biogeography of the Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 219–231. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[N01] Niedbała, W. 2001. Study of the diversity of Ptyctima (Acari: Oribatida) and quest for centres of its origin: the fauna of the Oriental and Australian regions. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 143–148. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[N07] Niedbała, W. 2007. Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Costa Rica. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 39–42. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

Norton, R. A. 2001. Systematic relationships of Nothrolohmanniidae, and the evolutionary plasticity of body form in Enarthronota (Acari: Oribatida). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 58–75. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 430-564. Texas Tech University Press.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

[SN98] Swift, S. F., & R. A. Norton. 1998. Preliminary report on oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) diversity in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 57: 1–44.

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