Cixius nervosus, photographed by Steve Tomlinson.

Belongs within: Auchenorrhyncha.

The Cixiidae are a cosmopolitan group of plant-sucking bugs that commonly bear setiferous tubercles along the veins of the fore wings. Nymphs of this family are mostly root-feeders (Carver et al. 1991). In most cixiids (Cixiinae), the hind wings have veins MP and CuA anastomosing for at least part of their length but the genus Borysthenes has these two veins completely separate and connected only by a cross-veinlet (Emeljanov 2002).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Head usually not prolonged, but if prolonged then with only a median carina or none (excluding lateral margins); median ocellus sometimes present; apical segment of rostrum distinctly longer than wide; fore wing veins often bearing setae set in tubercles; tegulae and claval furrow always distinct, apex of confluent anal veins not reaching apex of clavus; anal area of hind wings not reticulate; apex of second segment of hind tarsus with a ventral row of small dark spines.

    |--Borysthenes [Borystheninae] E02
    |    `--B. fatalis E02
    `--Cixiinae E02
         |  i. s.: Dysoliarus unicornis MC13
         |         Oliarus MC13
         |           |--O. angusticeps YS01
         |           |--O. felis CGW91
         |           |--O. kaonohi BM76
         |           |--O. lubra CGW91 [incl. O. lubra var. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907 K08]
         |           |--O. oppositus [incl. Cixius marginalis] M27
         |           |--O. poyphemus RH88
         |           |--O. priola RH88
         |           |--O. quinquelineatus WW96
         |           |--O. saccharicola Kirkaldy 1907 K08
         |           `--O. tasmani Kirkaldy 1907 K08
         |         Ozoliarus bullockorum MC13
         |--+--Duilius [Duiliini] E02
         |  |    |--D. fasciatus E02
         |  |    |--D. tamaricis E02
         |  |    `--D. tenuis E02
         |  `--+--Cajeta [Cajetini] E02
         |     |    `--C. singularis E02
         |     `--+--Stenophlepsiini E02
         |        `--+--Oecleini E02
         |           `--Bothriocera [Bothriocerinae] E02
         `--+--+--Eucarpia [Eucarpiini] E02
            |  `--Pintalia [Pintaliini] E02
            |       `--P. alta HR11
            `--+--+--Andes [Andini] E02
               |  |    `--A. undulatus E02
               |  `--+--Brixia [Brixiini] E02
               |     |    `--B. natalensis E02
               |     `--+--Brixidia [Brixidiini] E02
               |        `--Benna [Bennini] E02
               |             |--B. capitulata E02
               |             `--B. nasti E02
               `--+--Mnemosyne [Pentastirini] E02
                  `--+--Semo [Semonini] E02
                     |    `--S. clypealis E02
                     `--Cixius [Cixiini] E02
                          |--C. aspilus M27
                          |--C. cunicularius H01
                          |--C. nervosus E02
                          |--C. orcus RH88
                          |--C. petrinus RJ93
                          |--C. pini WW96
                          |--C. (Tetracixius) pinivorus Orosz 2003 F05
                          |--C. quebecensis WW96
                          `--C. stigmatus E66

Cixiidae incertae sedis:
  Myndus E02
    |--M. calvipennis [=Pinacites calvipennis] E02
    |--M. crudus WW96
    |--M. pusillus WW96
    |--M. rumina [=Colvanalia rumina] E02
    |--M. velox [=Myndodus velox] E02
    |--M. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907 K08
    `--M. wheeleri Wilson in Wheeler & Wilson 1996 WW96
  Achaemenes notatinervis E02
  Afroreptalus daemon E02
  Bennarella [Bennarellini] E02
    `--B. bicoloripennis E02
  Gelastocephalus [Gelastocephalini] E02
  Malpha muiri E02
  Pseudoliarus E02
  Mundopa E02
  Pentastiridius leporinus E02
  Oecleopsis artemisiae E02
  Reptalus arcbogdulus E02
  Kuvera E02
  Koroana interior [=Cixius interior; incl. K. helena, C. rufifrons] M27
  Tachycixius RH88
    |--T. canariensis RH88
    `--T. lavatubus Remane & Hoch 1988 RH88
  Hyalesthes angustulus RH88
  Typhlobrixia namorokensis RH88
  Confuga persephone RH88
  Gonyphlepsia WEE70
  Oeclixius amphion Fennah 1963 P92

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E02] Emeljanov, A. F. 2002. Contribution to classification and phylogeny of the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Denisia 2002: 103–112.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M27] Myers, J. G. 1927. On the nomenclature of New Zealand Homoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 685–690.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RH88] Remane, R., & H. Hoch. 1988. Cave-dwelling Fulguroidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from the Canary Islands. Journal of Natural History 22: 403–412.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WW96] Wheeler, A. G., Jr & S. W. Wilson. 1996. Planthoppers of pitch pine and scrub oak in pine barrens communities (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 100–108.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 7 May 2022.

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