Clypeata

Membracis sp., copyright Piotr Naskrecki.


Belongs within: Cicadomorpha.
Contains: Cercopoidea, Tibicinidae, Cicadidae, Cicadellidae.

The Clypeata are the crown clade of living species of the Cicadomorpha. They are characterised by a large, swollen postclypeus, and probably ancestrally feed on xylem (some subgroups feed on phloem or mesophyll) (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). Three ocelli are present on the crown of the head in members of the Cicadoidea whereas members of Cercopoidea and Cicadelloidea possess only two ocelli in various positions or lack ocelli entirely. Cicadelloidea have longer hind tibiae, more angular in cross section and usually more spinose, than the short, cylindrical hind tibiae of Cercopoidea (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Clypeata
    |--Hylicellidae [Hylicelloidea] SP02
    |    |--Vietocycla SP02
    |    `--Cycloscytina [incl. Mesocixiella] RJ93
    |--+--Cercopoidea SP02
    |  `--Cicadoidea SP02
    |       |  i. s.: Liassocicada GE05
    |       |         Tettigades VLM14
    |       |           |--T. auropilosa VLM14
    |       |           |--T. ulnaria VLM14
    |       |           `--T. undata VLM14
    |       |--Tibicinidae ZA05
    |       |--Cicadidae ZA05
    |       `--Tettigarctidae [Cicadaprosbolidae] GE05
    |            |--Turutanovia karatavica SP02
    |            |--Eotettigarcta GE05
    |            |--Cicadoprosbole K-P91
    |            |--Architettix compacta Hamilton 1990 RJ93
    |            |--Quadrisbole vieta Lin 1986 RJ93
    |            |--Lacunisbole ligonis Lin 1986 RJ93
    |            `--Tettigarcta CGW91
    |                 |--T. crinita CGW91
    |                 `--T. tomentosa CGW91
    `--Cicadelloidea [Membracoidea] GE05
         |--Karajassidae GE05
         |--Aetalionidae SP02
         |--Jascopidae GE05
         |--Cicadellidae GE05
         |--Hylicidae CGW91
         |--Bituritiidae WEE74
         |--Nicomiidae WEE74
         |--Eurymelidae [Eurymelinae] CGW91
         |    |  i. s.: Eurymeloides pulchra ZS10
         |    |         Eurymela CM91
         |    |           |--E. distincta CM70
         |    |           |--E. fenestrata CM91
         |    |           `--E. lessonii Boisduval 1835 B35
         |    |         Eurymelops bicolor C91
         |    |         Australoscopus CGW91
         |    |         Pogonoscopus lenis CGW91
         |    `--Ipoini GF13
         |         |--Ipoides hackeri MC13
         |         `--Ipo pellucida CGW91
         `--Membracidae GE05
              |  i. s.: Acanthucus trispinifer (Fairmaire 1846) H82
              |         Machaerotypus YS01
              |         Enchenopa binotata GE05
              |         Aconophorini PWP96
              |           |--Calloconophora PWP96
              |           |--Guayaquila maxima [incl. Aconophora caliginosa] PWP96
              |           `--Aconophora PWP96
              |                |--A. albipennis PWP96
              |                |--A. compressa MHG04
              |                |--A. elongata PWP96
              |                |--A. elongatiformis PWP96
              |                |--A. laminata PWP96
              |                |--A. marginata PWP96
              |                |--A. mexicana PWP96
              |                `--A. robusta PWP96
              |         Eutryonia monstrifer ZS10
              |         Atymna inornata BM76
              |         Spissistylus constans BM76
              |         Stictocephala bubalus BM76, SBM11
              |         Entylia BM76
              |           |--E. concisa BM76
              |           `--E. sinuata R13
              |         Tylopelta brevis BM76
              |         Cerasa BM76
              |         Cyrtolobus BM76
              |           |--C. fenestratus BM76
              |           `--C. tuberosus BM76
              |         Pogonella bispinus (Stål 1869) T13
              |         Sextius virescens CGW91
              |         Eufairmairia CGW91
              |           |--E. fraternus CGW91
              |           `--E. giganticus CGW91
              |         Sertorius australis CGW91
              |         Lubra spinicornis CGW91
              |         Eufrenchia falcata CGW91
              |--Centrotinae MC13
              |    |--Centrotus cornutus H01
              |    `--Rigula [Terentiini] MC13
              `--Membracis L02 [Membracinae WEE74]
                   |--M. aurita L02
                   |--M. cornuta L02
                   |--M. foliacea L02
                   |--M. genistae L02
                   `--M. squamigera L02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GF13] Gopurenko, D., M. Fletcher, H. Löcker & A. Mitchell. 2013. Morphological and DNA barcode species identifications of leafhoppers, planthoppers and treehoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) at Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 253–285.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[PWP96] Palmer, W. A., B. W. Willson & K. R. Pullen. 1996. The host range of Aconophora compressa Walker (Homoptera: Membracidae): a potential biological control agent for Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 617–624.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[VLM14] Van Leuven, J. T., R. C. Meister, C. Simon & J. P. McCutcheon. 2014. Sympatric speciation in a bacterial endosymbiont results in two genomes with the functionality of one. Cell 158: 1270–1280.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

[ZA05] Zaidi, M. I., & S. Azman. 2005. Cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) of the National Park of Peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1-2): 49–58.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 27 January 2020.

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