Formicinae

Workers and repletes of Myrmecocystus, copyright Greg Hume.


Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Melophorus, Plagiolepis, Stigmacros, Prenolepis, Paratrechina, Lasius, Formica, Polyrhachis, Camponotus.

The Formicinae is a clade of ants characterised by the presence of an acidipore, a circular or semicircular cone at the apex of the hypopygium, usually projecting as a nozzle and often fringed with hairs (Heterick 2009). The acidopore is used to secret and/or spray formic acid, which is used for defense in lieu of a sting. Members of the Formicinae include the weaver ants of the genus Oecophylla, which are found in the Old World tropics and build arboreal nests by weaving together leaves with the silk produced by larvae. Members of the Australasian genus Opisthopsis are large-eyed ants commonly referred to as strobe ants due to their distinctly jerky way of moving.

<==Formicinae [Camponotidae, Camponotinae]
    |--+--Myrmelachista BS06
    |  `--Brachymyrmex BS06
    |       |--B. depilis BS06
    |       `--B. musculus WW90
    `--+--+--+--Prenolepis BS06
       |  |  `--Paratrechina BS06
       |  `--+--Lasius BS06
       |     `--Myrmecocystus Wesm. 1838 BS06, B03
       |          |--*M. melligera B03
       |          |--M. cursor MS01
       |          |--M. flaviceps BS06
       |          |--M. setipes Forel 1894 [=M. viaticus setipes] B03
       |          `--M. viaticus MS01
       `--+--+--Anoplolepis Santschi 1914 BS06, FT08
          |  |    `--A. gracilipes (Smith 1857) [incl. A. longipes] FT08
          |  `--Acropyga Roger 1862 BS06, B03
          |       |--*A. acutiventris Roger 1802 [incl. Plagiolepis flava Mayr 1862] B03
          |       |--A. flava E89
          |       |--A. myops [incl. A. indistincta] H09
          |       `--A. pallida H09
          `--+--+--Notostigma carazzii BS06
             |  `--+--+--Formica BS06
             |     |  `--Polyergus breviceps BS06 [incl. Formica rufescens D59, P. rufescens WW90]
             |     `--+--Oecophylla Smith 1861 BS06, B03
             |        |    |--*O. virescens B03
             |        |    |--O. leakeyi Z02
             |        |    |--O. longinoda H79
             |        |    `--O. smaragdina (Fabr. 1775) [=Formica smaragdina] B03
             |        `--Notoncus BS06
             |             |--N. capitatus H09
             |             |--N. enormis H09
             |             |--N. gilberti H09
             |             `--N. hickmani H09
             `--+--Myrmoteras Forel 1894 BS06, B03
                |    |--*M. binghami Forel 1894 B03
                |    |--M. diastematum N-ZLI11
                |    `--M. iriodum BS06
                `--+--Opisthopsis BS06
                   |    |--O. haddoni C08
                   |    |--O. respiciens BS06
                   |    `--O. rufithorax H09
                   `--+--Polyrhachis BS06
                      |--Camponotus BS06
                      `--Calomyrmex BS06
                           |--C. albertisi BS06
                           |--C. glauerti H09
                           `--C. purpureus B88

Formicinae incertae sedis:
  Cataglyphis Först. 1850 GE05, B03
  Melophorus H09
  Kyromyrma neffi GE05
  Chimaeromyrma GE05
  Plagiolepis FT08
  ‘Eucharis’ democles Walker 1839 B88
  Stigmacros H09
  Prolasius H09
    |--P. antennatus H09
    |--P. hemiflavus H09
    `--P. reticulatus [incl. P. wheeleri] H09
  Myrmecorhynchus emeryi H09
  Acanthomyops WW90
  Pseudolasius Smith 1861 B03
    `--*P. familiaris (Smith 1861) [=Formica familiaris] B03
  Euprenolepis N-ZLI11
    |--E. procera N-ZLI11
    |--E. varigata N-ZLI11
    `--E. wittei N-ZLI11
  Hemioptica Roger 1862 B03
    |--*H. scissa Roger 1862 [=Polyrhachis scissa] B03
    |--H. aculeata (Mayr 1878) [=Polyrhachis aculeata] B03
    `--H. pubescens (Mayr 1878) [=Polyrhachis pubescens; incl. H. pubescens var. alatisquamis] B03
  Acantholepis Mayr 1861 B03
    |--*A. frauenfeldi (Mayr 1855) (see below for synonymy) B03
    |--A. canescens A61
    |--A. capensis Mayr 1862 B03
    |--A. fergusoni Forel 1895 B03
    |--A. modesta Forel 1894 B03
    |--A. opaca Forel 1892 B03
    |--A. pulchella Forel 1892 B03
    `--A. simplex Forel 1892 B03

*Acantholepis frauenfeldi (Mayr 1855) [=Hypoclinea frauenfeldi; incl. A. frauenfeldi var. bipartita, A. frauenfeldi var. integra, A. frauenfeldi var. sericea] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G. & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303–324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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