Female Parischnogaster striatula provisioning a larval cell, copyright David Baracchi.

Belongs within: Vespoidea.
Contains: Eumeninae, Polistinae, Vespinae, Eustenogaster, Liostenogaster.

The Vespidae is a family of often large wasps including the social wasps and their close solitary or subsocial relatives. Eusocial wasps are placed in the subfamilies Vespinae, Polistinae and Stenogastrinae, with species of the last being facultatively eusocial. Stenogastrine colonies, usually composed of up to ten individuals, are flexible in structure and they lack the true workers of other social wasps (Hines et al. 2007).

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Mostly large (5-32 mm). Inner margins of compound eyes strongly emarginate except in Masarinae; mandibles generally short and broad but becoming elongate and crossing to form a distinct 'X' in many Eumeninae; glossae and paraglossae sometimes greatly produced and with apical sclerotised pads (acroglossal buttons); pronotum not freely movable against mesothorax, mid-dorsally short, posterolateral corner acutely produced dorsal to tegula and spiracle cover lobe close to tegula (remote in Stenogastrinae); parategula (an apically rounded, more or less dorsoventrally flattened lobe arising from posterolateral corner of mesoscutum and lying adjacent to tegula) present in Eumeninae and some Masarinae; calcar of hind tibia apically curved, bifid or trifid in some Masarinae, strigil well developed; fore wing at rest folded longitudinally in all except Stenogastrinae, Euparagiinae and many Masarinae; primitively with three submarginal cells in fore wing; cell 1M of fore wing elongate; hind wing jugal lobe often present; terga primitively overlapping sterna and freely movable against them, but with various degrees of fusion in many taxa; posterior metasomal segments often retractile within segment 2; T3 and S3 often enlarged; females ovipositing into cells before provisioning. Larvae variable, usually spinning a cocoon.

<==Vespidae [Eumenidae]
    |--+--+--Euparagia [Euparagiinae] HH07
    |  |  |    |--E. richardsi HH07
    |  |  |    `--E. scutellaris WB03
    |  |  `--Masarinae HH07
    |  |       |--Trimeria rhachiphora HH07
    |  |       `--Pseudomasaris phaceliae HH07
    |  `--+--Eumeninae HH07
    |     `--+--+--Polistinae HH07
    |        |  `--Vespinae HH07
    |        `--Zethinae HH07
    |             |--Calligaster HH07
    |             |--Australozethus tasmaniensis HH07
    |             `--Zethus HH07
    |                  |--Z. garciai HH07
    |                  |--Z. miniatus HH07
    |                  `--Z. spinipes HH07
    `--Stenogastrinae HH07
         |  i. s.: Stenogaster G84
         |         Metischnogaster van der Vecht 1977 NK11
         |           |--M. cillipennis (Smith 1857) NK11
         |           `--M. drewseni (de Saussure 1857) NK11
         |         Cochlischnogaster Dong & Otsuka 1997 NK11
         |           `--C. spatulata Carpenter & Starr 2000 NK11
         |--+--Eustenogaster HH07
         |  `--Liostenogaster HH07
         `--Parischnogaster von Schulthess 1914 HH07, NK11
              |--P. alternata Sakagami 1969 NK11
              |--P. aurifrons (Smith 1862) NK11
              |--P. foveata (du Buysson 1907) NK11
              |--P. gracilipes (van der Vecht 1977) NK11
              |--P. jacobsoni (du Buysson 1913) NK11
              |--P. mellyi (de Saussure 1852) NK11
              |--P. nigricans (Cameron 1902) NK11
              |--P. striatula (du Buysson 1907) NK11
              `--P. unicuspidata Reyes 1988 NK11

Vespidae incertae sedis:
  Sinostigma Hong 1983 E01
    `--*S. spinalata Hong 1983 E01
  Curiosivespa R02
  Agelaia multipicta BR07
  Paravespa GS61
    |  i. s.: P. spinigera GS61
    `--P. (Gestrodynerus Giordani Soika 1961) GS61
         |--P. (*G.) gestroi [=Odynerus gestroi] GS61
         |--P. (G.) minutepunctata Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
         `--P. (G.) violaceipennis Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
  Odontodynerus GS61
    |--O. brincki Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
    |--O. quadrituberculatus (Smith 1857) [=Odynerus quadrituberculatus] GS61
    |--O. rikatlensis [incl. O. hansi] GS61
    `--O. silaos (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus silaos; incl. Ody. silaensis Saussure 1855] GS61
  Afreumenes GS61
    |--A. melanosoma GS61
    `--A. violaceus (Giordani Soika 1941) [=Eumenes (Afreumenes) violaceus] GS61
  Leptomenes GS61
    |--L. subtilis Giordani Soika 1938 GS61
    `--L. vulneratus (Saussure 1855) (see below for synonymy) GS61
  Pseudepipona GS61
    |  i. s.: P. erythrospila (Cameron 1905) [=Odynerus erythrospilus] GS61
    |         P. meadewaldoi (Bequaert 1918) (see below for synonymy) GS61
    |         P. posticus [incl. Odynerus hottentotus] GS61
    `--P. (Anthodynerus) GS61
         |--P. (A.) indecora (Cameron 1910) [=Odynerus indecorus] GS61
         |--P. (A.) proterrens GS61
         `--P. (A.) synagroides (Saussure 1853) [=Rhynchium synagroides, Odynerus synagroides] GS61
  Tricarinodynerus guerinii GS61
    |--T. g. guerinii GS61
    |--T. g. deserticola Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
    |--T. g. neptunus GS61
    `--T. g. rubens GS61
  Synagris GS61
    |--S. (Paragris) abyssinica Guérin in Lefebvre 1848 GS61
    `--S. cornuta (Linnaeus 1758) [=Vespa cornuta] BM76
  Ceramius GS61
    |--C. hispanicus RL09
    `--C. lichtensteinii GS61
         |--C. l. lichtensteinii GS61
         `--C. l. macrocephalus Saussure 1855 GS61
  Quartinia capensis [incl. Q. scutellimacula Schulthess 1929, Q. capensis var. scutellimacula] GS61
  Allodynerus rosi A-B91
  Pterocheilus C90
  ‘Didineis’ solidescens Scudder 1890 BM76
  Alastor BM76
    `--‘Nysson’ rottensis Meunier 1915 BM76

Leptomenes vulneratus (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus vulneratus; incl. Labus transiens Kohl 1907, Leptomenes transiens] GS61

Pseudepipona meadewaldoi (Bequaert 1918) [=Odynerus meadewaldoi; incl. O. deceptor Meade Waldo 1915 (preoc.)] GS61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR07] Buzatto, B. A., G. S. Requena, E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2007. Effects of maternal care on the lifetime reproductive success of females in a Neotropical harvestman. Journal of Animal Ecology 76 (5): 937-945.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440-451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295-3299.

Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., pp. 916-1000. Melbourne University Press.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59-74.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 242-254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840-847.

[WB03] Ward, P. S., & S. G. Brady. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of the ant subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 361-386.

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