Camponotus

Camponotus saundersi, photographed by Noel Tawatao.


Belongs within: Formicinae.

Camponotus is a diverse and cosmopolitan genus of ants, generally with a characteristic rounded profile to the rear of the mesosoma. Workers of this genus are polymorphic within a species, with distinct major and minor forms present.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna with twelve segments (including scape); propodeal angle (if present) rounded; metapleural gland opening inconspicuous, without fringe of long setae; first gastral tergite much less than half total length of gaster; major and minor worker castes, at least, always present, media workers often present.

<==Camponotus Mayr 1861 FT08
    |--C. (Camponotus) WW90
    |    |--*C. (C.) ligniperdus Latreille 1802 B03, SW07 [=Formica ligniperda T99]
    |    |--C. (C.) ferrugineus [=C. pennsylvanicus ferrugineus] WW90
    |    |--C. (C.) hemichlaena T99
    |    |--C. (C.) japonicus Mayr 1866 T99, B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. (C.) modoc [=C. pennsylvanicus modoc] WW90
    |    |--C. (C.) obscuripes T99
    |    |--C. (C.) quercicola WW90
    |    |--C. (C.) sachalinensis T99
    |    `--C. (C.) yessensis T99
    |--C. (Colobopsis Mayr 1861) BS06, B03
    |    |--C. (*C.) truncatus E14, B03 [=*Colobopsis truncata B03]
    |    |--‘Colobopsis’ angustata Mayr 1870 B03
    |    |--C. (C.) conithorax Emery 1914 E14
    |    |--‘Colobopsis’ cotesi Forel 1893 B03
    |    |--C. (C.) doriae E89
    |    |--C. (C.) nipponicus T99
    |    |--C. (C.) papago WW90
    |    |--C. (C.) pubescens (Mayr 1862) E89, B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Colobopsis’ rothneyi Forel 1893 B03
    |    |--C. (C.) rufifrons [incl. C. r. var. leucopus Emery 1914] E14
    |    |--C. (C.) saundersi Emery 1889 E89
    |    |--C. (C.) shohki Terayama 1999 T99
    |    |--C. (C.) sommeri For. 1894 E14
    |    |--‘Colobopsis’ stricta (Jerd. 1851) [=Formica stricta] B03
    |    `--‘Colobopsis’ testacea Bingham 1903 B03
    |--C. (Myrmamblys) YT99
    |    |--C. (M.) bishamon Terayama 1999 T99
    |    |--C. (M.) daitoensis Terayama 1999 T99
    |    |--C. (M.) itoi T99
    |    |--C. (M.) nawai T99
    |    |--C. (M.) nigronitidus Azuma 1951 (n. d.) T99
    |    |--C. (M.) ogasawarensis T99
    |    |--C. (M.) vitiosus Smith 1874 (see below for synonymy) YT99
    |    |--C. (M.) yamaokai T99
    |    `--C. (M.) yambaru Terayama 1999 T99
    |--C. (Myrmaphaenus) ulcerosus [incl. C. bruesi] WW90
    |--C. (Myrmentoma) YT99
    |    |--C. (M.) caryae YT99
    |    |    |--C. c. caryae T99
    |    |    `--C. c. brunni T99
    |    |--C. (M.) keihitoi T99
    |    |--C. (M.) nipponensis T99
    |    |--C. (M.) quadrinotatus T99
    |    `--C. (M.) sayi [incl. C. rasilis] WW90
    |--C. (Myrmocamelus) E14
    |    |--C. (M.) gambeyi Emery 1883 E14
    |    |    |--C. g. gambeyi E14
    |    |    `--C. g. marthae For. 1894 E14
    |    `--C. hoplites Emery 1914 E14
    |--C. (Myrmosaulus) camelinus (Smith 1857) N-ZLI11, B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. (Myrmotarsus) N-ZLI11
    |    |--C. (M.) irritabilis N-ZLI11
    |    `--C. (M.) rupifemur N-ZLI11
    |--C. (Myrmoturba) E14
    |    |--C. (M.) chloroticus E14, FT08 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. (M.) croceomaculatus Emery 1914 E14
    |    |--C. (M.) maculatus E14 [=C. rubripes maculatus G89]
    |    `--C. (M.) novaehollandiae Mayr 1870 E14, FT08 [=C. maculatus novaehollandiae E14]
    |--C. (Paramyrmamblys) T99
    |    |--C. (P.) amamianus T99
    |    `--C. (P.) kiusiuensis T99
    `--C. (Tanaemyrmex) WW90
         |--C. (T.) aethiops YT99
         |--C. (T.) albosparsus Bingham 1903 (see below for synonymy) T99
         |--C. (T.) arrogans (Smith 1858) N-ZLI11, B03 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (T.) devestivus T99
         |--C. (T.) dumetorum WW90
         |--C. (T.) festinatus [=C. fumidus festinatus] WW90
         |--C. (T.) friedae Forel 1912 (see below for synonymy) T99
         |--C. (T.) kaguya Terayama 1999 T99
         |--C. (T.) monju Terayama 1999 T99
         `--C. (T.) semitestaceus WW90

Camponotus incertae sedis:
  C. abdominalis CM07
  C. angusticollis (Jerdon 1851) (see below for synonymy) B03
  C. arcuatus H09
    |--C. a. arcuatus H09
    `--C. a. aesopus H09
  C. armstrongi H09
  C. auriventris Emery 1889 E89
  C. aurocinctus H09
  C. ‘badius’ (Smith 1857) [=Formica badia non Latreille 1802] B03
  C. barbatus Roger 1863 B03
  C. basalis Smith 1878 [incl. C. maculatus lobinieri Forel 1902] B03
  C. binghami Forel 1894 B03
  C. buddhae Forel 1892 B03
  C. camelus Emery 1883 E14
  C. capito H09
    |--C. c. capito H09
    `--C. c. ebenithorax H09
  C. carbonarius B03
  C. carin Emery 1889 [=C. dorycus carin] E89
  C. ceriseipes H09
  C. chalceus H09
  C. cinereus H09
    |--C. c. cinereus H09
    |--C. c. amperei H09
    `--C. c. notterae H09
  C. clarior H09
  C. claripes H09
    |--C. c. claripes H09
    |--C. c. inverellensis H09
    |--C. c. marcens H09
    |--C. c. minimus H09
    |--C. c. nudimalis H09
    `--C. c. piperatus H09
  C. compressus (Fabr. 1787) B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. confucii Forel 1894 B03
  C. consobrinus H09
  C. cowlei H09
  C. coxalis E89
  C. crassisquamis Forel 1902 B03
  C. crassus MC05
  C. darlingtoni H09
  C. denticulatus B12
  C. dichrous Forel 1879 [=C. maculatus var. dichrous; incl. C. dichrous var. kattensis] B03
  C. discors H09
    |--C. d. discors H09
    `--C. d. angustinodus (n. d.) H09
  C. dolendus Forel 1892 [=C. rufoglaucus dolendus] B03
  C. donnellani H09
  C. dorycus E89
  C. dromas H09
  C. dryandrae H09
  C. ephippium H09
  C. esau H09
  C. eugeniae A61
  C. evae H09
    |--C. e. evae H09
    `--C. e. zeuxis H09
  C. exasperatus E89
  C. festinus (Smith 1857) [=Formica festina] B03
  C. fornaronis Forel 1892 [=C. mistura fornaronis] B03
  C. gasseri H09
  C. gibbinotus H09
  C. gigas (Latreille 1802) [=Formica gigas] B03
  C. gouldianus H09
  C. gretae Forel 1902 B03
  C. haberei T99
  C. hartogi H09
  C. herculeanus MS01
  C. holosericeus Emery 1889 E89
  C. hyatti BS06
  C. infuscus Forel 1892 [=C. maculatus infuscus] B03
  C. innexus H09
  C. insipidus (n. d.) H09
  C. integer [=C. sericeus var. integer] B03
  C. intrepidus H09
  C. invidus Forel 1892 B03
  C. irritans (Smith 1857) [=Formica irritans, C. maculatus irritans; incl. C. agnatus Roger 1863] B03
  C. jejuensis T99
  C. johnclarki [=Notostigma johnclarki] H09
  C. laevigatus WB03
  C. lamarcki Forel 1892 B03
  C. lespesi MC05
  C. longideclivis H09
  C. longifacies H09
  C. lownei H09
  C. luteus (Smith 1858) [=Formica lutea] B03
  C. macarangae FM97
  C. mackayensis FT08
  C. macrocephalus H09
  C. marginatus (Latr. 1798) B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. maritimus BS06
  C. melichloros Kirby 1888 FT08
  C. melleus (Say 1835) SW07
  C. mendax Forel 1895 [=C. sericeus var. mendax] B03
  C. micans E89
  C. michaelseni [incl. C. walkeri bardus] H09
  C. mistura (Smith 1857) [=Formica mistura] B03
  C. mitis (Smith 1858) B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. molossus H09
  C. nicobarensis Mayr 1865 (see below for synonymy) B03
  C. nigriceps H09
  C. nigroaeneus H09
  C. nirvanae Forel 1893 B03
  C. oblongus (Smith 1858) [=Formica oblonga] B03
  C. oetkeri H09
    |--C. o. oetkeri H09
    `--C. o. voltai [incl. C. rudis] H09
  C. pallens E89
  C. pallidus (Smith 1857) [=Formica pallida; incl. C. rubripes subnudus Emery 1889] B03
  C. paria Emery 1889 [=C. micans paria, C. rufoglaucus paria] B03
  C. pawseyi H09
  C. pennsylvanicus H09 [incl. C. pennsylvanicus var. aterrimus MS01, C. pennsylvanicus var. saxatilis MS01]
  C. perjurus H09
  C. pitjantjatarae H09
  C. postcornutus H09
  C. prosseri H09
  C. prostans H09
  C. pulchellus For. 1894 E14
  C. pseudoirritans T99
  C. radiatus Forel 1892 B03
  C. renggeri B14
  C. reticulatus Roger 1863 FT08 [incl. C. reticulatus var. latitans B03]
  C. rubripes G89
    |--C. r. rubripes G89
    `--C. r. cognatus G89
  C. rufoglaucus (Jerdon 1851) [=Formica rufoglauca; incl. C. redtenbacheri Mayr 1862] B03
  C. rufus H09
  C. rugipes WL04
  C. scotti H09
  C. scratius H09
  C. sericeus (Fabr. 1798) (see below for synonymy) B03
  C. siemsseni Forel 1901 B03
  C. simpsoni McArthur 2003 H09
  C. sponsorum H09
  C. subnitidus H09
  C. taylori Forel 1892 [=C. maculatus taylori; incl. C. taylori var. infuscoides] B03
  C. terebrans H09
  C. thraso Forel 1893 [=C. maculatus var. thraso] B03
  C. tinctus (Smith 1858) E14, B03 [=Formica tincta B03]
  C. tricoloratus H09
  C. tristis H09
  C. tumidus H09
  C. varians Roger 1863 B03
  C. variegatus (Smith 1858) [=Formica variegata] B03
  C. versicolor H09
  C. walkeri H09
  C. wasmanni Emery 1893 [incl. C. wasmanni var. mutilloides Emery 1893] B03
  C. whitei H09
  C. wiederkehri H09
  C. wroughtoni Forel 1893 B03
  C. yerburyi Forel 1893 [=C. reticulatus yerburyi] B03

Camponotus angusticollis (Jerdon 1851) [=Formica angusticollis; incl. F. ardens Smith 1858, F. callida Smith 1858, F. impetuosa Smith 1858, Camponotus prismaticus Mayr 1862, C. angusticollis var. sanguinolentus] B03

Camponotus compressus (Fabr. 1787) B03 [=Formica compressa B03, C. maculatus compressus B03, C. rubripes compressus E89]

Camponotus marginatus (Latr. 1798) B03 [=Formica marginata B03; incl. F. glabra L02, Camponotus marginatus var. himalayanus Forel 1893 B03]

Camponotus mitis (Smith 1858) B03 [=Formica mitis B03, C. rubripes mitis E89; incl. Formica bacchus Smith 1858 B03, C. mitis var. bacchus B03, C. mitis var. comottoi Emery 1887 B03, C. mitis var. crassinodis Forel 1892, C. mitis var. dulcis Emery 1889 E89, C. variegatus var. dulcis T99, C. mitis var. fuscithorax Forel 1892 B03, F. ventralis Smith 1858 B03]

Camponotus nicobarensis Mayr 1865 [incl. C. nicobarensis exiguoguttatus Forel 1892, C. nicobarensis var. monticola Emery 1894] B03

Camponotus sericeus (Fabr. 1798) [=Formica sericea; incl. F. cinerascens Jerd. 1851, F. obtusa Smith 1858, Camponotus opaciventris Mayr 1878] B03

Camponotus (Camponotus) japonicus Mayr 1866 T99, B03 [incl. C. herculeanus pensylvanicus var. punctatissimus Emery 1894 B03]

Camponotus (Colobopsis) pubescens (Mayr 1862) E89, B03 [=Colobopsis pubescens B03; incl. Ca. (Co.) leonardi Emery 1889 B03, E89]

Camponotus (Myrmamblys) vitiosus Smith 1874 [=C. (Tanaemyrmex) aethiops vitiosus, C. (Myrmentoma) caryae vitiosus, C. fallax vitiosus, C. marginatus vitiosus; incl. C. (Myrmamblys) tokioensis var. atrigenatus Santschi 1937, C. (Myrmamblys) tokioensis var. inconstans Santschi 1937, C. itoi tokioensis Ito 1912, C. (Myrmamblys) itoi tokioensis, C. (Myrmentoma) itoi tokioensis, C. (Myrmentoma) tokyoensis (l. c.)] YT99

Camponotus (Myrmosaulus) camelinus (Smith 1857) N-ZLI11, B03 [=Formica camelina B03; incl. F. singularis Smith 1858 B03, Camponotus (Myrmosaulus) singularis N-ZLI11]

Camponotus (Myrmoturba) chloroticus E14, FT08 [=C. maculatus chloroticus E14; incl. C. maculatus chlorotica var. chlorogaster Emery 1914 E14]

Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) albosparsus Bingham 1903 [=C. taylori var. albosparsus, C. barbatus albosparsus, C. maculatus taylori var. albosparsus Forel 1894 (nom. inv.)] T99

Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) arrogans (Smith 1858) N-ZLI11, B03 [=Formica arrogans B03; incl. C. maculatus junctus Forel 1892 B03]

Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) friedae Forel 1912 [=C. (Myrmotuba) friedae; incl. C. (M.) friedae var. amia Forel 1912, C. (Tanaemyrmex) friedae amius] T99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339-373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FM97] Federle, W., U. Maschwitz, B. Fiala, M. Riederer & B. Hölldobler. 1997. Slippery ant-plants and skilful climbers: selection and protection of specific ant partners by epicuticular wax blooms in Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Oecologia 112: 217–224.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5–72.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[MC05] Machado, G., P. C. Carrera, A. M. Pomini & A. J. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators? Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (11): 2519–2539.

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[SW07] Schöller, M., & V. Witte. 2007. A review of the genus Clytrasoma Jacoby 1908, with description of a new species collected within a Camponotus sp. ant-nest (Insecta: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 51–61.

Terayama, M. 1999. The ant genus Camponotus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 25–48.

[WL04] Wang, X.-H., & P. J. Lester. 2004. A preliminary study of the usefulness of morphometric tools for splitting the Monomorium antarcticum (Smith) complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), New Zealand’s most common native ants. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 103–108.

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Yamane, S. & M. Terayama. 1999. A new species of the genus Pristomyrmex Mayr from Japan, and a proposal of a new synonym of species in the genus Camponotus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 17–24.

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