Camponotus maritimus, from

Belongs within: Camponotini.
Contains: Camponotus (Camponotus), Camponotus (Myrmamblys), Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex).

Camponotus is a diverse and cosmopolitan genus of ants, generally with a characteristic rounded profile to the rear of the mesosoma. They are commonly referred to as carpenter ants owing to the habit of some species of building nests in galleries in dead wood; however, not all species in the genus exhibit this behaviour. Workers of most Camponotus species are polymorphic, with distinct major and minor forms present (some species may also possess media forms). Major workers typically have a much more massive head than minors, with larger mandibles.

Species have been divided between several subgenera but many of the resultant groupings are poorly defined and require formal phylogenetic testing; as a result, many authors eschew their usage. Phasmomyrmex, a small group of Afrotropical species with rectangular or trapezoidal heads and monomorphic workers, has historically been treated as a distinct genus but was reclassified as a subgenus of Camponotus by Ward et al. (2016). Pseudocolobopsis, the false cork-head ants, is a Neotropical group of which the majors and queens have an elongate, often anteriorly obliquely truncate head. Forelophilus is a group of small, blackish ants found in south-east Asia with a strong transverse ridge across the propodeum.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna with twelve segments (including scape); propodeal angle (if present) rounded; metapleural gland opening inconspicuous, without fringe of long setae; first gastral tergite much less than half total length of gaster; major and minor worker castes, at least, always present, media workers often present.

Camponotus Mayr 1861 T99 [incl. Myrmophyma Forel 1912 TB85, Thlipsepinotus Santschi 1928 TB85]
    |--+--C. gibbinotus Forel 1902 WBF16, TB85
    |  `--C. (Phasmomyrmex) [incl. Myrmacantha, Myrmorhachis] WBF16
    |       |--C. (P.) buchneri [incl. *Phasmomyrmex sericeus] WBF16
    |       |    |--C. b. buchneri WBF16
    |       |    `--C. b. camerounensis Ward, Blaimer & Fisher 2016 [=Phasmomyrmex buchneri griseus (preoc.)] WBF16
    |       |--C. (P.) aberrans WBF16
    |       |--C. (P.) paradoxus WBF16
    |       |    |--C. p. paradoxus WBF16
    |       |    `--C. p. cupreus WBF16
    |       `--C. (P.) wolfi WBF16
    `--+--C. (Pseudocolobopsis) WBF16
       |    |--C. (P.) claviscapus WBF16
       |    `--C. (P.) cordincola [=C. (Colobopsis) cordincola] WBF16
       `--+--+--C. hyatti WBF16
          |  `--C. maritimus WBF16
          `--+--C. bedoti WBF16
             `--C. (Forelophilus) WBF16
                  |--C. (F.) javaensis Ward, Blaimer & Fisher 2016 [=*Forelophilus overbecki (preoc.)] WBF16
                  |--C. (F.) philippinensis WBF16
                  `--C. (F.) stefanschoedli WBF16

Camponotus incertae sedis:
  C. abdominalis CM07
  C. adami Forel 1910 TB85
  C. aeneopilosus Mayr 1862 TB85
    |--C. a. aeneopilosus TB85
    `--C. a. flavidopubescens Forel 1902 TB85
  C. afflatus Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Myrmosaga) afflatus] TB85
  C. albivillosus Zhou 2001 Z01
  C. angusticollis (Jerdon 1851) (see below for synonymy) B03
  C. arcuatus Mayr 1876 TB85
    |--C. a. arcuatus TB85
    `--C. a. aesopus Forel 1907 TB85
  C. armstrongi McAreavey 1949 TB85 [=C. (Myrmogonia) armstrongi WBF16]
  C. auratiacus Zhou 2001 Z01
  C. auriventris Emery 1889 B03
  C. aurocinctus (Smith 1858) [=Formica aurocincta] TB85
  C. baldaccii ES12
  C. barbatus Roger 1863 B03
  C. basalis Smith 1878 [incl. C. maculatus lobinieri Forel 1902] B03
  C. bifossus [=C. (Colobopsis) bifossus] WBF16
  C. bigenus Santschi 1919 [=C. (Myrmocamelus) bigenus] TB85
  C. binghami Forel 1894 B03
  C. branneri P92
  C. breviscapus Zhou 2001 Z01
  C. buddhae Forel 1892 B03
  C. cameratus Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Myrmogonia) cameratus] TB85
  C. capito Mayr 1876 [=C. (*Myrmophyma) capito] TB85
    |--C. c. capito TB85
    `--C. c. ebeninithorax Forel 1915 [=C. (Myrmophyma) capito ebeninithorax] TB85
  C. carbonarius B03
  C. carin Emery 1889 [=C. dorycus carin] B03
  C. ceriseipes Clark 1938 [=C. (Myrmophyma) ceriseipes] TB85
  C. chalceoides Clark 1938 [=C. (Myrmophyma) chalceoides] TB85
  C. chalceus Crawley 1915 [=C. (Myrmosaga) chalceus] TB85
  C. cinereus Mayr 1876 TB85
    |--C. c. cinereus TB85
    |--C. c. amperei Forel 1913 [=C. (Myrmocamelus) cinereus amperei] TB85
    `--C. c. notterae Forel 1907 TB85
  C. clarior Forel 1902 H09, TB85 [=C. nigriceps clarior TB85]
  C. claripes Mayr 1876 [=C. (*Thlipsepinotus) claripes] TB85
    |--C. c. claripes TB85
    |--C. c. elegans Forel 1902 TB85
    |--C. c. inverallensis Forel 1910 TB85
    |--C. c. marcens Forel 1907 TB85
    |--C. c. minimus Crawley 1922 [=C. (Myrmophyma) claripes minima] TB85
    |--C. c. nudimalis Forel 1913 TB85
    |--C. c. orbiculatopunctatus Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Myrmophyma) claripes orbiculatopunctatus] TB85
    `--C. c. piperatus Wheeler 1933 [=C. (Myrmophyma) claripes piperatus] TB85
  C. compressus (Fabr. 1787) B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. confucii Forel 1894 B03
  C. consectator (Smith 1858) [=Formica consectator] TB85
  C. consobrinus (Erichson 1842) [=Formica consobrina; incl. C. dimidiatus Roger 1863] TB85
  C. cowlei Froggatt 1896 TB85
  C. coxalis E89
  C. crassisquamis Forel 1902 B03
  C. crassus MC05
  C. crenatus Mayr 1876 TB85
  C. cruentatus (Latreille 1802) [=Formica cruentata] TB85
    |--C. c. cruentatus TB85
    `--C. c. aspera Menozzi 1925 [=C. (Myrmosericus) cruentatus aspera] TB85
  C. darlingtoni Wheeler 1934 H09, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
  C. denticulatus Kirby 1896 TB85
  C. dichrous Forel 1879 [=C. maculatus dichrous; incl. C. dichrous var. kattensis] B03
  C. discors Forel 1902 [=C. maculatus discors] TB85
    |--C. d. discors H09
    |--C. d. angustinodus (n. d.) H09
    `--C. d. yarrabahensis Forel 1915 [=C. (Myrmoturba) discors yarrabahensis] TB85
  C. dolendus Forel 1892 [=C. rufoglaucus r. dolendus] Z01
  C. donnellani H09
  C. dorycus (Smith 1860) [=Formica dorycus] TB85
    |--C. d. dorycus TB85
    `--C. d. confusus Emery 1887 TB85
  C. dromas Santschi 1919 [=C. (Myrmocamelus) dromas] TB85
  C. dryandrae H09
  C. eremicus Wheeler 1915 [=C. (Myrmogonia) eremicus] TB85
  C. erythropus Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Myrmosaga) erythropus] TB85
  C. esau Forel 1915 [=C. (Myrmocamelus) esau] TB85
  C. eugeniae A61
  C. evae Forel 1910 TB85
    |--C. e. evae TB85
    `--C. e. zeuxis Forel 1915 [=C. (Myrmogonia) evae zeuxis] TB85
  C. exasperatus E89
  C. extensus Mayr 1876 TB85
  C. festinus (Smith 1857) [=Formica festina] B03
  C. fictor Forel 1902 [=C. (Colobopsis) fictor] TB85
    |--C. f. fictor TB85
    `--C. f. augustulus Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Colobopsis) fictor augustulus] TB85
  C. fieldeae Forel 1902 TB85
  C. fieldellus Forel 1910 TB85
  C. floridanus PK17
  C. fornaronis Forel 1892 [=C. mistura fornaronis] B03
  C. froggatti Forel 1902 TB85
  C. fuscivillosus Z01
  C. gouldianus Forel 1922 TB85
  C. gretae Forel 1902 B03
  C. haberei T99
  C. hartogi Forel 1902 [incl. C. (Myrmosaga) ferruginipes Crawley in Poulton & Crawley 1922] TB85
  C. herculeanus MS01
  C. holosericeus Emery 1889 B03
  C. horni Kirby 1896 TB85
  C. inflatus Lubbock 1880 [incl. C. (Myrmamblys) aurofasciatus Wheeler 1915] TB85
  C. infuscus Forel 1892 [=C. maculatus infuscus] B03
  C. innexus Forel 1902 TB85
  C. insipidus Forel 1893 (n. d.) TB85
  C. integer [=C. sericeus var. integer] B03
  C. intrepidus (Kirby 1818) [=Formica intrepida] TB85
    |--C. i. intrepidus [incl. Formica agilis Smith 1858, C. magnus Mayr 1862] TB85
    `--C. i. bellicosus Forel 1902 TB85
  C. invidus Forel 1892 B03
  C. irritans (Smith 1857) [=Formica irritans, C. maculatus irritans; incl. C. agnatus Roger 1863] B03
  C. janeti Forel 1895 TB85
  C. janforrestae WBF16
  C. jejuensis T99
  C. jianghuaensis Xiao & Wang 1989 Z01
  C. johnclarki [=Notostigma johnclarki] H09
  C. laevigatus WB03
  C. lamarcki Forel 1892 B03
  C. largiceps Z01
  C. lasiselene Wang & Wu 1994 Z01
  C. latrunculus Wheeler 1915 [=C. (Myrmoturba) latrunculus] TB85
    |--C. l. latrunculus TB85
    `--C. l. victoriensis Santschi 1928 [=C. (Myrmoturba) latrunculus victoriensis] TB85
  C. leae Wheeler 1915 [=C. (Myrmosphincta) leae] TB85
  C. lespesi MC05
  C. lividicoxis Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Myrmophyma) lividicoxis] TB85
  C. longideclivis H09
  C. longifacies H09
  C. lownei Forel 1895 [=Formica nitida Lowne 1865 non Smith 1858] TB85
  C. luteus (Smith 1858) [=Formica lutea] B03
  C. macareaveyi [=C. (Myrmogonia) macareaveyi] WBF16
  C. mackayensis Forel 1902 FT08, TB85 [=C. reticulatus mackayensis TB85]
  C. marginatus (Latr. 1798) B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. melichloros Kirby 1888 FT08
  C. melleus (Say 1835) SW07
  C. mendax Forel 1895 [=C. sericeus var. mendax] B03
  C. micans E89
  C. michaelseni Forel 1907 TB85 [incl. C. walkeri bardus Forel 1910 H09, TB85]
  C. midas Froggatt 1896 TB85
  C. minus Wang & Wu 1994 Z01
  C. mistura (Smith 1857) [=Formica mistura] B03
  C. mitis (Smith 1858) B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. molossus Forel 1907 TB85
  C. myoporus Clark 1938 [=C. (Tanaemyrmex) myoporus] TB85
  C. nicobarensis Mayr 1865 (see below for synonymy) B03
  C. nigriceps (Smith 1858) [=Formica nigriceps] TB85
    |--C. n. nigriceps TB85
    |--C. n. lividipes Emery 1887 TB85
    |--C. n. obniger Forel 1902 TB85
    `--C. n. pallidiceps Emery 1887 TB85
  C. nigroaeneus (Smith 1858) [=Formica nigroaenea] TB85
    |--C. n. nigroaeneus TB85
    `--C. n. divus Forel 1907 TB85
  C. nirvanae Forel 1893 B03
  C. nitidiceps Viehmeyer 1925 [=C. (Myrmophyma) nitidiceps] TB85
  C. oblongus (Smith 1858) [=Formica oblonga] B03
  C. oetkeri Forel 1910 TB85
    |--C. o. oetkeri TB85
    `--C. o. voltai Forel 1913 TB85 [=C. (Myrmogonia) oetkeri voltai TB85; incl. C. rudis H09]
  C. oxleyi Forel 1902 TB85
  C. pallens E89
  C. pallidus (Smith 1857) [=Formica pallida; incl. C. rubripes subnudus Emery 1889] B03
  C. papua K91
  C. paria Emery 1889 [=C. micans paria, C. rufoglaucus paria] B03
  C. pawseyi H09
  C. pellax Santschi 1919 [=C. (Myrmocamelus) pellax] TB85
  C. perjurus H09
  C. pilicornis ES12
  C. pitjantjatarae H09
  C. postcornutus Clark 1930 [=C. (Tanaemyrmex) postcornutus] TB85
  C. prosseri H09
  C. prostans H09
  C. pseudoirritans Wu & Wang 1989 Z01
  C. punctiventris Emery 1920 [=C. (Myrmogonia) punctiventris] TB85
  C. radiatus Forel 1892 B03
  C. renggeri B14
  C. reticulatus Roger 1863 FT08 [incl. C. reticulatus var. latitans B03]
  C. rubiginosus Mayr 1876 TB85
  C. rubripes G89
    |--C. r. rubripes G89
    `--C. r. cognatus G89
  C. rufoglaucus (Jerdon 1851) [=Formica rufoglauca; incl. C. redtenbacheri Mayr 1862] B03
  C. rufus Crawley 1925 [=C. (Dinomyrmex) rufus] TB85
  C. rugipes WL04
  C. ‘sanguinea’ McAreavey 1949 (see below for synonymy) TB85
  C. scotti H09
  C. scratius Forel 1907 TB85
    |--C. s. scratius TB85
    `--C. s. nuntius Forel 1907 TB85
  C. semicarinatus (Forel 1895) [=Colobopsis rufifrons semicarinatus] TB85
  C. sericeiventris B10
  C. sericeus (Fabr. 1798) (see below for synonymy) B03
  C. siemsseni Forel 1901 B03
  C. simpsoni McArthur 2003 H09
  C. simulator Forel 1915 [=C. (Dinomyrmex) simulator] TB85
  C. spanis Xiao & Wang 1989 Z01
  C. spenceri Clark 1930 [=C. (Tanaemyrmex) spenceri, C. reticulatus Kirby 1896 non Roger 1863] TB85
  C. spinitarsus Emery 1920 [=C. (Dinomyrmex) spinitarsus] TB85
  C. sponsorum Forel 1910 TB85
  C. subnitidus Mayr 1876 TB85
    |--C. s. subnitidus TB85
    |--C. s. famelicus Emery 1887 TB85
    `--C. s. longinodis Forel 1915 [=C. (Dinomyrmex) subnitidus longinodis] TB85
  C. suffusus (Smith 1858) [=Formica suffusa] TB85
    |--C. s. suffusus [incl. Formica piliventris Smith 1858, C. schencki Mayr 1862] TB85
    `--C. s. bendigensis Forel 1902 TB85
  C. sylvaticus ES12
  C. tasmani Forel 1902 TB85
  C. taylori Forel 1892 [=C. maculatus taylori; incl. C. taylori var. infuscoides] B03
  C. terebrans (Lowne 1865) H09, TB85 [=Formica terebrans TB85]
  C. testaceipes (Smith 1858) [=Formica testaceipes] TB85
  C. thraso Forel 1893 [=C. maculatus thraso] B03
  C. tinctus (Smith 1858) E14, B03 [=Formica tincta B03]
  C. tricoloratus Clark 1941 [=C. (Tanaemyrmex) tricoloratus] TB85
  C. tristis Clark 1930 [=C. (Myrmophyma) tristis] TB85
  C. tritschleri [=C. (Colobopsis) tritschleri] WBF16
  C. tumidus Crawley 1922 [=C. (Myrmogonia) tumidus] TB85
  C. universitatis ES12
  C. varians Roger 1863 B03
  C. variegatus (Smith 1858) (see below for synonymy) Z01
  C. versicolor Clark 1930 [=C. (Myrmosaulus) versicolor] TB85
  C. villosus Crawley 1915 [=C. (Myrmoturba) villosa] TB85
  C. walkeri Forel 1893 TB85
  C. wasmanni Emery 1893 Z01 (see below for synonymy)
  C. whitei Wheeler 1915 [=C. (Myrmosphincta) whitei; incl. C. (Myrmosaulus) scutellus Clark 1930] TB85
  C. wiederkehri Forel 1894 TB85
    |--C. w. wiederkehri TB85
    `--C. w. lucidior Forel 1910 TB85
  C. wroughtoni Forel 1893 B03
  C. yerburyi Forel 1893 [=C. reticulatus yerburyi] B03
  C. (Camponotus) T99
  C. (Myrmamblys) YT99
  C. (Myrmaphaenus) ulcerosus [incl. C. bruesi] WW90
  C. (Myrmentoma) YT99
    |--C. (M.) caryae YT99
    |    |--C. c. caryae T99
    |    `--C. c. brunni T99
    |--C. (M.) decipiens WBF16
    |--C. (M.) keihitoi T99
    |--C. (M.) nipponensis T99
    |--C. (M.) quadrinotatus T99
    `--C. (M.) sayi [incl. C. rasilis] WW90
  C. (Myrmocamelus Forel 1914) E14, TB85
    |--C. (*M.) ephippium (Smith 1858) [=Formica ephippium] TB85
    |    |--C. e. ephippium TB85
    |    `--C. e. narses Forel 1915 TB85
    |--C. (M.) gambeyi Emery 1883 E14
    |    |--C. g. gambeyi E14
    |    `--C. g. marthae For. 1894 E14
    `--C. (M.) hoplites Emery 1914 E14
  C. (Myrmosaulus) camelinus (Smith 1857) N-ZLI11, B03 (see below for synonymy)
  C. (Myrmotarsus) N-ZLI11
    |--C. (M.) irritabilis N-ZLI11
    `--C. (M.) rupifemur N-ZLI11
  C. (Myrmoturba) E14
    |--C. (M.) croceomaculatus Emery 1914 E14
    |--C. (M.) maculatus (Fabricius 1781) E14, TB85 [=Formica maculata TB85, C. rubripes maculatus G89]
    |    |--C. m. maculatus TB85
    |    `--C. m. humilior Forel 1902 TB85
    `--C. (M.) novaehollandiae Mayr 1870 E14, FT08 [=C. maculatus novaehollandiae E14]
  C. (Paramyrmamblys) T99
    |--C. (P.) amamianus T99
    `--C. (P.) kiusiuensis T99
  C. (Tanaemyrmex) YT99

Camponotus angusticollis (Jerdon 1851) [=Formica angusticollis; incl. F. ardens Smith 1858, F. callida Smith 1858, F. impetuosa Smith 1858, Camponotus prismaticus Mayr 1862, C. angusticollis var. sanguinolentus] B03

Camponotus compressus (Fabr. 1787) B03 [=Formica compressa B03, C. maculatus compressus B03, C. rubripes compressus E89]

Camponotus darlingtoni Wheeler 1934 H09, TB85 [=C. (Myrmophyma) darlingtoni TB85, C. (M.) rottnesti Donisthorpe 1941 TB85]

Camponotus marginatus (Latr. 1798) B03 [=Formica marginata B03; incl. F. glabra L02, Camponotus marginatus var. himalayanus Forel 1893 B03]

Camponotus mitis (Smith 1858) B03 [=Formica mitis B03, C. maculatus mitis B03, C. rubripes mitis E89, C. (Myrmoturba) mitis Z01; incl. Formica bacchus Smith 1858 B03, C. mitis var. bacchus B03, C. mitis var. comottoi Emery 1887 B03, C. mitis var. crassinodis Forel 1892 B03, C. mitis var. dulcis Emery 1889 B03, C. variegatus var. dulcis T99, C. mitis var. fuscithorax Forel 1892 B03, F. ventralis Smith 1858 B03]

Camponotus nicobarensis Mayr 1865 [incl. C. nicobarensis exiguoguttatus Forel 1892, C. nicobarensis var. monticola Emery 1894] B03

Camponotus ‘sanguinea’ McAreavey 1949 non C. japonicus var. sanguinea Karavajew 1929 [=C. (Myrmogonia) sanguinea] TB85

Camponotus sericeus (Fabr. 1798) [=Formica sericea; incl. F. cinerascens Jerd. 1851, F. obtusa Smith 1858, Camponotus opaciventris Mayr 1878] B03

Camponotus variegatus (Smith 1858) [=Formica variegata; incl. C. (Myrmoturba) variegatus hawaiensis Emery 1920] Z01

Camponotus wasmanni Emery 1893 Z01 [=C. (Myrmepomis) wasmanni Z01, C. (Orthonotomyrmex) wasmanni Z01; incl. C. wasmanni var. mutilloides Emery 1893 B03]

Camponotus (Myrmosaulus) camelinus (Smith 1857) N-ZLI11, B03 [=Formica camelina B03; incl. F. singularis Smith 1858 B03, Camponotus (Myrmosaulus) singularis N-ZLI11]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 25 April 2022.

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