Cynipidae

Female Synergus reinhardi, from here.


Belongs within: Cynipoidea.

The Cynipidae are a family of small phytophagous wasps forming galls in angiosperms, though some are inquilines of other gall-formers (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Many species show an alternation between parthenogenetic and sexually-reproducing generations.

Characters (from Ronquist & Nieves-Aldrey 2001): Metascutellum medially constricted; forewing with marginal cell open; pronotum lacking a lateral carina.

<==Cynipidae
    |--+--+--Isocolus RN-A01
    |  |  `--Neaylax RN-A01
    |  `--+--Liposthenes RN-A01
    |     `--Synergus RN-A01
    |          |--S. nervosus A71
    |          |--S. pallicornis A71
    |          |--S. reinhardi A71
    |          `--S. umbraculus A71
    `--+--Barbotinia Nieves-Aldrey 1994 [Aylacini] RN-A01
       |    `--*B. oraniensis (Barbotin 1964) [=Aylax oraniensis] RN-A01
       `--Cynipini [Cynipinae] RN-A01
            |--Cynips divisa A71
            |--Callirhytis RN-A01
            |--Disholcaspis RN-A01
            `--Andricus RN-A01
                 |--A. kollari A71
                 |--A. quercusradicis AN-A04
                 `--A. vectensis GE05

Cynipidae incertae sedis:
  Alloxysta G35
    |--A. infuscata M83
    `--A. thoreauini Girault 1935 G35
  Kleidotoma M83
  Periclistus brandti A71
  Paraulax RN-A01
  Aulacidea GE05
    |--A. freesei F05
    |--A. martae Nieves-Aldrey 2004 F05
    `--A. succinea GE05
  Diplolepidini GE05
    |--Diplolepis A71
    |    |--D. anthidiorum Lucas 1849 E12
    |    `--D. rosae A71
    `--Rhodites vetus GE05
  Amblynotus Hartig 1840 G29, GM79
    |--A. berlesei Girault 1937 G37
    |--A. hartigi Girault 1930 G30a [=A. parvus Girault 1929 non Hart 1840 G29]
    |--A. parvus Hart 1840 G30a
    `--A. pilosiscutum Girault 1929 G29
  Hexaplasta Forster 1869 G30b, GM79
    |--H. aemilia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. florentia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. julia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. lucia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. maria Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. mozarti Girault 1930 GM79
    `--H. thoreauini Girault 1930 GM79
  Rhoptromeris G34a
    |--R. operarius Girault 1934 G34a
    `--R. unimaculus Girault 1931 G31a
  Glyptoxysta bifoveata Girault 1931 G31b [incl. G. bispinosa Girault 1931 (n. n.) G32b, G31b]
  Cleidotoma G32a
    |--C. carlylei Girault 1932 G32a
    `--C. melancholica Girault 1932 G32a
  Gronotoma domestica Girault 1932 G32a
  Australofigites Girault 1932 G32b
    `--*A. poeta Girault 1932 G32b
  Pentacrita marguerita Girault 1934 G34b
  Phanacis hypochoeridis B88
  Plagiotrochus AN-A04
    |--P. australis AN-A04
    `--P. quercusilicis AN-A04
  Iraella hispanica Nieves-Aldrey 2005 F05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R. & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27-39.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266-269).

[G30a] Girault, A. A. 1930a. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273-277).

[G30b] Girault, A. A. 1930b. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278-279).

[G31a] Girault, A. A. 1931a. A new habit in an old insect, Homo pudicus and new Eurytomidae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 280-283).

[G31b] Girault, A. A. 1931b. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 284-285).

[G32a] Girault, A. A. 1932a. New pests from Australia, X. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 286-291).

[G32b] Girault, A. A. 1932b. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293-298).

[G34a] Girault, A. A. 1934a. Eucharitidae, Cynipidae, Proctotrypidae et Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 306-307).

[G34b] Girault, A. A. 1934b. Miridae et Hymenoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 308-310).

[G35] Girault, A. A. 1935. Microhymenoptera Australiensis nova, mostly Chalcididae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 315-318).

[G37] Girault, A. A. 1937. New naturals, unorthodoxies and non-pollutions, viz. new hexapods. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 326-328).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[RN-A01] Ronquist, F., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2001. A new subfamily of Figitidae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 483-494.

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