Cynipidae

Female Synergus reinhardi, from here.


Belongs within: Cynipoidea.
Contains: Cynipinae.

The Cynipidae are a family of small phytophagous wasps forming galls in angiosperms, though some are inquilines of other gall-formers (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Many species show an alternation between parthenogenetic and sexually-reproducing generations. Notable species include Barbotinia oraniensis which induces spherical galls inside the seed capsules of annual Papaver (poppy) species (Ronquist & Nieves-Aldrey 2001).

Characters (from Ronquist & Nieves-Aldrey 2001): Metascutellum medially constricted; forewing with marginal cell open; pronotum lacking a lateral carina.

<==Cynipidae
    |--+--Cynipinae RN-A01
    |  `--Barbotinia Nieves-Aldrey 1994 [Aylacini] RN-A01
    |       `--*B. oraniensis (Barbotin 1964) [=Aylax oraniensis] RN-A01
    `--+--+--Isocolus RN-A01
       |  `--Neaylax RN-A01
       `--+--Liposthenes RN-A01
          `--Synergus RN-A01
               |--S. nervosus A71
               |--S. pallicornis A71
               |--S. reinhardi A71
               `--S. umbraculus A71

Cynipidae incertae sedis:
  Periclistus brandti A71
  Paraulax RN-A01
  Aulacidea GE05
    |--A. freesei F05
    |--A. martae Nieves-Aldrey 2004 F05
    `--A. succinea GE05
  Diplolepidini GE05
    |--Rhodites vetus GE05
    `--Diplolepis E12
         |--D. anthidiorum Lucas 1849 E12
         |--D. quercusfolii (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Cynips quercusfolii L02]
         `--D. rosae A71
  Amblynotus Hartig 1840 G29, GM79
    |--A. berlesei Girault 1937 G37
    |--A. hartigi Girault 1930 G30a [=A. parvus Girault 1929 non Hart 1840 G29]
    |--A. parvus Hart 1840 G30a
    |--A. pilosiscutum Girault 1929 G29
    `--A. ruficeps Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
  Hexaplasta Forster 1869 G30b, GM79
    |--H. aemilia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. florentia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. julia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. lucia Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. maria Girault 1930 GM79
    |--H. mozarti Girault 1930 GM79
    `--H. thoreauini Girault 1930 GM79
  Glyptoxysta bifoveata Girault 1931 G31 [incl. G. bispinosa Girault 1931 (n. n.) G32b, G31]
  Gronotoma domestica Girault 1932 G32a
  Australofigites Girault 1932 G32b
    `--*A. poeta Girault 1932 G32b
  Pentacrita marguerita Girault 1934 G34
  Plagiotrochus AN-A04
    |--P. australis AN-A04
    `--P. quercusilicis AN-A04
  Iraella hispanica Nieves-Aldrey 2005 F05
  Psilodora hyalipennis Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
  Microstilba bidentata MS01
  Aulax scabiosae MS01
  Pycnostigmus HB13 [Pycnostigmatinae N91]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266–269).

[G30a] Girault, A. A. 1930a. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273–277).

[G30b] Girault, A. A. 1930b. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278–279).

[G31] Girault, A. A. 1931. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 284–285).

[G32a] Girault, A. A. 1932a. New pests from Australia, X. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 286–291).

[G32b] Girault, A. A. 1932b. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293–298).

[G34] Girault, A. A. 1934. Miridae et Hymenoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 308–310).

[G37] Girault, A. A. 1937. New naturals, unorthodoxies and non-pollutions, viz. new hexapods. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 326–328).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RN-A01] Ronquist, F., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2001. A new subfamily of Figitidae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 483–494.

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