Hemerobiidae

Micromus variegatus, from Entomart.


Belongs within: Hemerobiiformia.

The Hemerobiidae, brown lacewings, are generally smaller lacewings that are mostly generalist predators.

Characters (from Tjeder 1961): Adults small to medium-sized, with a forewing length of 3.5–16 mm; larvae usually arboreal. Imago with head small or medium-sized, short or elongate with prominent compound eyes. Ocelli absent. Antennae slender, multi-segmented, moniliform, length varying from less than half to slightly more than full length of forewing. Scape enlarged, pedicel elongate. Galea with basigalea; apical knob lacking. Palpi long. Maxillary palpi five- or six-segmented; labial palpi three- or four-segmented. Palpimacula present or lacking. Mandibles well developed, acutely pointed, somewhat asymmetrical, always with internal tooth. Pronotum short, usually much broader than long. Lateral margins usually prolonged into a lobe. Mesonotum broad and large with large scutellum. Metanotum shorter than mesonotum, with small scutellum. Legs cursorial with well developed coxae; coxae of forelegs long and slender. Tibiae usually with short spurs. Tarsi of medium length, five-segmented; terminal segment with pair of sharp curved claws and broad pad-like empodium. Wings of varying shape, generally oval or elongate, subequal (exceptions common). Wing membrane usually delicate and smooth, occasionally much thickened or coriaceous. Trichosors present along margins. Wing-membrane covered by microtrichia. Veins and trichosors carrying macrotrichia, sometimes very minute. Pterostigma generally distinct. Venation variable; wings frequently mottled or marked with spots and fasciae; yellow, brown and black colours prevalent. Vein R of forewing with more than one sector. Forewing with jugal lobe at base of anal margin, with shape of a more or less triangular weak lappet. Hindwings with single Rs. Wings not coupled during flight. Abdomen cylindrical or nearly so, generally more slender in male than in female. Eight pairs of spiracles present, on segments 1 to 8. Cercal callus and trichobothria present.
Male with tergites 1–8 usually unmodified, rarely carrying teeth or other dilations. Spiracles of segment 8 usually placed in membrane between tergite and sternite. Tergite 9 generally forming narrow half-ring. Sternite 9 more or less short, scoop-like. Ectoprocts dorsally not fused, usually modified for grasping, ending in one or two prongs, or simple; distally often prolonged; frequently carrying spines or other structures. Gonarcus with shape of transverse arch, sometimes bearing mediuncus, or arcessus, or pair of entoprocessus. Parameres free or fused; superprocessus present or absent. Distinct, stem-like hypandrium internum present.
Female with tergite 8 with sides extending downwards and spiracles opening through these lateral parts. Tergite 9 either forming half-ring or split laterally in to small dorsal plate and pair of lateral plates. Subgenitale present or absent; pair of gonapophyses posteriores occasionally present, membranously strongly fixed to subgenitale. Praegenitale very seldom present. Gonapophyses laterales formed as pair of more or less short, convex scales, usually crescent-shaped in lateral view. Ectoprocts forming a pair of simple convex plates, never dorsally fused, seldom with tooth-like process. Spermatheca usually small and weak, rather simply shaped, sometimes coiled.

<==Hemerobiidae [Hemerobiinae, Sympherobiidae] GE05
    |--Promegalomus [Promegalomidae] GE05
    |--Mesohemerobius GE05
    |--Drepanepteryx phalaenoides T61, WL10
    |--Drepanacra T61
    |--Gayomyia T61
    |--Dyshemerobius Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    `--*D. productus Tjeder 1961 T61
    |--Sympherobius Banks 1904 (see below for synonymy) T61
    |    |--*S. amiculus (Fitch 1856) [=Hemerobius amiculus] T61
    |    |--S. amicus Navás 1915 T61
    |    |--S. barberi T61
    |    |--S. brincki Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--S. domesticus T61
    |    |--S. fuscescens T61
    |    |--S. impar Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--S. nigricornis Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--S. pygmaeus [incl. S. conspersus] T61
    |    |--S. schmitzi Navás 1908 T61
    |    `--S. smithersi Nakahara 1960 T61
    |--Notiobiella Banks 1909 (see below for synonymy) T61
    |    |--*N. unita Banks 1909 T61
    |    |--N. africanus (Navás 1929) T61
    |    |--N. bella Navás 1930 T61
    |    |--N. costalis Banks 1918 T61
    |    |--N. decora Kimmins 1929 T61
    |    |--N. hargreavesi Kimmins 1936 T61
    |    |--N. mombassina Navás 1936 T61
    |    |--N. nitidula Navás 1910 T61
    |    |--N. peterseni Banks 1932 T61
    |    |--N. punctata Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--N. rosea Kimmins 1933 T61
    |    |--N. turneri Kimmins 1933 T61
    |    |--N. ugandensis Kimmins 1939 T61
    |    `--N. vicina Kimmins 1936 T61
    |--Boriomyia Banks 1905 [incl. Kimminsia Killington 1937, Wesmaelius Krüger 1922] T61
    |    |--*B. disjuncta (Banks 1897) [=Hemerobius disjunctus] T61
    |    |--B. barnardi Tjeder 1955 T61
    |    |--B. concinna T61
    |    |--B. davidica Navás 1910 T61
    |    |--B. fulva (Navás 1918) T61
    |    |--B. fumosa Tjeder 1955 T61
    |    |--B. geyri Esben-Petersen 1920 T61
    |    |--B. lindbergi Esben-Petersen 1931 T61
    |    |--B. majuscula Kimmins 1959 T61
    |    |--B. maorica Tillyard 1923 T61
    |    |--B. navasi T61
    |    |--B. nervosa T61
    |    |--B. nubila Kimmins 1929 [=Kimminsia nubila] T61
    |    |--B. obscurata Navás 1936 T61
    |    |--B. praenubila (Fraser 1951) T61
    |    |--B. sinica Tjed. 1936 T61
    |    `--B. subnebulosa T61
    |--Psectra Hagen 1866 [incl. Annandalia Needham 1909, Eucarobius Esben-Petersen 1928, Nyrma Navás 1933] T61
    |    |--*P. diptera (Burmeister 1839) [=Hemerobius dipterus] T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ affinis Banks 1913 [=Annandalia affinis] T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ antennata Navás 1931 [=Annandalia antennata] T61
    |    |--P. capensis (Kimmins 1935) [=Annandalia capensis] T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ congensis Navás 1931 [=Annandalia congensis] T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ externa Banks 1909 [=Annandalia externa] T61
    |    |--P. fasciata (Esben-Petersen 1928) [=*Eucarobius fasciatus] T61
    |    |--P. galloisi T61
    |    |--‘Annandalia’ hageni Banks 1932 T61
    |    |--P. iniqua (Hagen 1858) (see below for synonymy) T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ jeanneli Nav. 1914 [=Annandalia jeanneli] T61
    |    |--P. kervillea (Navás 1933) [=*Nyrma kervilleana] T61
    |    |--P. minima [=Notiobiella minima] T61
    |    |--P. mozambica Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ obliqua Banks 1909 [=Annandalia obliqua] T61
    |    |--P. oblonga (Esben-Petersen 1928) [=Eucarobius oblongus] T61
    |    |--‘Notiobiella’ pretiosa Banks 1909 [=Annandalia pretiosa] T61
    |    `--P. siamica T61
    |--Hemerobius Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) T61
    |    |--*H. humuli Linnaeus 1758 [=H. humulinus] T61
    |    |--H. abditus Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--H. abyssinicus Esb.-Pet. 1928 T61
    |    |--H. aper Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--H. blanchardi Nak. 1960 T61
    |    |--H. ceraticus Nav. 1924 T61
    |    |--H. deceptor Nav. 1915 T61
    |    |--H. disparilis Nav. 1936 T61
    |    |--H. elatus Nav. 1914 T61
    |    |--H. fidelis Banks 1897 [=Boriomyia fidelis] T61
    |    |--H. nairobicus Navás 1910 T61
    |    |--H. natalensis Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--H. nemorensis Kimm. 1952 T61
    |    |--H. nitidulus T61
    |    |--H. pini T61
    |    |--H. reconditus Navás 1914 [incl. H. ellenbergeri Navás 1933, H. errans Navás 1914] T61
    |    |--H. rudebecki Tjeder 1961 T61
    |    |--H. sjoestedti Nav. 1921 T61
    |    |--H. skottsbergi Nav. 1921 T61
    |    `--H. speciosus Banks 1904 [=Boriomyia speciosa] T61
    `--Micromus Rambur 1842 (see below for synonymy) T61
         |--*M. variegatus (Fabricius 1793) [=Hemerobius variegatus] T61
         |--M. acutipennis Kimmins 1956 T61
         |--M. africanus Weele 1910 [=Eumicromus africanus; incl. M. ludicrus Navás 1933] T61
         |--M. angulatus T61
         |--M. canariensis Esb.-Pet. 1936 T61
         |--M. carpentieri Lestage 1925 T61
         |--M. cookeorum T61
         |--M. delamarei Auber 1956 T61
         |--M. exiguus Nav. 1908 T61
         |--M. fulvescens T61
         |--M. fuscostriatus Fraser 1951 T61
         |--M. haleakalae T61
         |--M. insulanus Navás 1925 T61
         |--M. insularis Hagen 1888 T61
         |--M. lanceolatus Navás 1910 T61
         |--M. latipennis T61
         |--M. laxus Navás 1930 T61
         |--M. lobipennis T61
         |--M. maculipes Fraser 1957 T61
         |--M. malgassicus Fraser 1951 T61
         |--M. multinervosus Fraser 1955 T61
         |--M. oblongus Kimmins 1935 [incl. Nenus parallelus Navás 1936] T61
         |--M. paganus T61
         |--M. ‘parallelus’ Fraser 1957 non Nenus parallelus Navás 1936 T61
         |--M. perelegans Tjed. 1936 T61
         |--M. plagatus Navás 1934 T61
         |--M. sjoestedti Weele 1910 (see below for synonymy) T61
         |--M. swezeyi T61
         |--M. tasmaniae M83
         |--M. theryanus Nav. 1910 T61
         |--M. timidus Hagen 1853 (see below for synonymy) T61
         |--M. usingeri T61
         `--M. zonarius Navás 1936 T61

Hemerobius Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Brauerobius Krüger 1922, Hagenobius Krüger 1922, Hemerodromia Navás 1909, Mucropalpus Rambur 1842, Reuterobius Krüger 1922, Schneiderobius Krüger 1922, Stenolomus Navás 1906] T61

Micromus Rambur 1842 [incl. Afromicromus Nakahara 1960, Ameromicromus Nakahara 1960, Anomicromus Nakahara 1960, Archaeomicromus Krüger 1922, Austromicromus Nakahara 1960, Eumicromus Nakahara 1915, Heteromicromus Krüger 1922, Indomicromus Krüger 1922, Meomicromus Krüger 1922, Nenus Navás 1912, Nesomicromus Perkins 1899, Nesothauma Perkins 1899, Paramicromus Krüger 1922 non Nakahara 1919, Pseudomicromus Krüger 1922, Pseudopsectra Perkins 1899, Spilomicromus Nakahara 1960, Stenomicromus Krüger 1922, Tanca Navás 1929] T61

Micromus sjoestedti Weele 1910 [incl. M. braunsi Navás 1929, M. capensis Esben-Petersen 1920, Afromicromus capensis, Eumicromus capensis] T61

Micromus timidus Hagen 1853 [=Archaeomicromus timidus, Eumicromus timidus; incl. E. diminutus Nakahara 1956, Archaeomicromus modestus Navás 1936, Micromus navigatorum Brauer 1867, A. navigatorum, Eumicromus navigatorum, Nesomicromus navigatorum, Micromus vinaceus Gerstaecker 1885, M. pusillus Gerstaecker 1894, Archaeomicromus pusillus, M. sauteri Esben-Petersen 1912, M. weryae Lestage 1923] T61

Notiobiella Banks 1909 [incl. Buxtonia Esben-Petersen 1928, Ganchetus Navás 1929, Vaja Navás 1925; Notiobellinae] T61

Psectra iniqua (Hagen 1858) [incl. *Annandalia curta Needham 1909, A. khandalensis (Navás 1930), A. maindronia (Navás 1910)] T61

Sympherobius Banks 1904 [incl. Coloma Navás 1915, Eurobius Krüger 1922, Lachlanius Krüger 1922, Nefasitus Navás 1915, Niremberge, Palmobius Needham 1905, Spadobius Needham 1905] T61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[T61] Tjeder, B. 1961. Neuroptera-Planipennia. The lace-wings of southern Africa. 4. Family Hemerobiidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 296-408. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[WL10] Wang, Y., Z. Liu, X. Wang, C. Shih, Y. Zhao, M. S. Engel & D. Ren. 2010. Ancient pinnate leaf mimesis among lacewings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16212-16215.

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