Tabanomorpha

Los Angeles wormlion Vermileo, photographed by Tokuo Nakamoto.


Belongs within: Brachycera.
Contains: Rhagionidae, Tabanidae.

The Tabanomorpha is a clade of flies of which many members are predatory. A number of subgroups, including the Tabanidae, Athericidae and some members of the Spaniidae (previously classified with the Rhagionidae), feed on vertebrate blood (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Representatives include the wormlions of the genus Vermileo which get their name because the larvae construct pits like those of ant-lions that they use to capture prey.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Female cercus with basal segment having small lobe; larval head retracting into thorax.

<==Tabanomorpha
    |--+--Rhagionidae WT11
    |  `--Vermileonidae [Vermileonoidea] WT11
    |       |--Lampromyia T81b
    |       |--Vermitigris T81b
    |       `--Vermileo WT11
    |            |--V. comstocki T90
    |            |--V. fascipennis W09a
    |            |--V. opacus WT11
    |            |--V. tibialis M90
    |            `--V. willetti W09
    `--+--+--Bolbomyia WT11
       |  |    |--B. macgillisi M81
       |  |    `--B. nana WT11
       |  `--Spaniidae [Spaniinae] GE05
       |       |--Ptiolina majuscula K09, JT81
       |       |--Litoleptis alaskensis K09, JT81
       |       |--Spania nigra JT81
       |       |    |--S. n. nigra JT81
       |       |    `--S. n. americana JT81
       |       |--Symphoromyia GE05
       |       |    |--S. hirta M90
       |       |    |--S. (Axinicera) inurbana JT81
       |       |    `--S. montana M81
       |       `--Chrysopilus WT11
       |            |--C. flavibarbis JT81
       |            |--C. gratiosus CM91
       |            |--C. ornatus JT81
       |            |--C. proximus JT81
       |            `--C. thoracicus WT11
       `--+--Batgana GE05
          |--Shulmas GE05
          `--+--Pelecorhynchidae WT11
             |    |--Bequaertomyia jonesi M90
             |    |--Pseudoerinna K09
             |    |--Pelecorhynchus CM91
             |    |    |--P. fulvus CM91
             |    |    `--P. fusconiger LNM91
             |    `--Glutops WT11
             |         |--G. bandus T81a
             |         |--G. rossi T81a
             |         `--G. singularis WT11
             `--+--Oreoleptis [Oreoleptidae] WT11
                |    `--O. torrenticola WT11
                `--+--Tabanidae WT11
                   `--Athericidae WT11
                        |  i. s.: Qiyia Chen, Wang et al. 2014 CW14
                        |           `--*Q. jurassica Chen, Wang et al. 2014 CW14
                        |--Dasyomma [Dasyommatinae] W09b
                        `--Athericinae W09b
                             |--Xeritha W09b
                             |--Suragina W09b
                             |    |--S. concinna W09b
                             |    |--S. latipennis W09b
                             |    `--S. longipes W09b
                             `--Atherix WT11
                                  |--A. lantha W81
                                  |--A. peringueyi S61
                                  `--A. variegata WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CW14] Chen, J., B. Wang, M. S. Engel, T. Wappler, E. A. Jarzembowski, H. Zhang, X. Wang, X. Zheng & J. Rust. 2014. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva. eLife 3 (e02844): 1–8.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JT81] James, M. T., & W. J. Turner. 1981. Rhagionidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 483–488. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K09] Kerr, P. H. 2009. Rhagionidae (snipe flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 485–489. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[LNM91] Lawrence, J. F., E. S. Nielsen & I. M. Mackerras. 1991. Skeletal anatomy and key to orders. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 3–32. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409–412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[T81a] Teskey, H. J. 1981a. Pelecorhynchidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 459–461. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T81b] Teskey, H. J. 1981b. Vermileonidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 529–532. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253–1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[W81] Webb, D. W. 1981. Athericidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 479–482. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W09a] Woodley, N. E. 2009a. Vermileonidae (worm-lions). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 481–483. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[W09b] Woodley, N. E. 2009b. Athericidae (athericid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 491–493. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

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