Vespina

Orussus abietinus, copyright Evgeny Komarov.


Belongs within: Hymenoptera.
Contains: Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Aculeata, Megalyridae, Aulaciformes.

The Vespina are a major clade of wasps united by a number of synapomorphies including loss of thoracic legs in the larvae, reduction of the larval antenna to a single segment, and accomodation of the adult mesocoxae into metepisternal depressions (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of the clade are ancestrally parasitic as larvae. The greater part of the Vespina are included in the Apocrita, a clade of wasps characterised by the development of a narrow waist between the first and second abdominal segments, with the first abdominal segment being incorporated into the mesosoma as the propodeum (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Major groups within the Apocrita include the Ichneumonoidea, a diverse group of parasitoid wasps. The two living families of ichneumonoids, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae, each include both ectoparasitic and endoparasitic representatives; endoparasitic ichneumonoids carry symbiotic polydnaviruses that affect their host's immune system and allow survival of the parasitoid larva.

<==Vespina [Ephialtitoidea, Euhymenoptera, Evaniales, Evaniomorpha, Parasitica] HR11
    |  i. s.: Foenus assectator L02
    |         Karatavitidae R02
    |         Ephialtitidae R02
    |           |--Stephanogaster magna GE05
    |           |--Karataus R02
    |           `--Cratephialtites kourios GE05
    |--Orussoidea [Idiogastra] PK17
    |    |--Paroryssidae GE05
    |    `--Orussidae HR11
    |         |--Mesorussus taimyrensis GE05
    |         |--Minyorussus luzzii GE05
    |         |--Guiglia sericata N91
    |         |--Orussobaius wilsoni N91, R70
    |         |--Orussonia N91
    |         `--Orussus Latreille 1802 L02
    |              |--*O. coronatus Latreille 1802 L02
    |              |--O. abietinus HR11
    |              |--O. occidentalis HR11
    |              `--O. unicolor PK17
    `--Apocrita PK17
         |--Parasitoida PK17
         |    |--Proctotrupomorpha PK17
         |    `--+--Ichneumonoidea [Ichneumonides] PK17
         |       |    |  i. s.: Cedria paradoxa A71
         |       |    |--Praeichneumon [Praeichneumonidae] GE05
         |       |    `--+--Ichneumonidae GE05
         |       |       `--+--Eoichneumonidae GE05
         |       |          `--Braconidae GE05
         |       `--+--Stigmaphronidae GE05
         |          `--Ceraphronoidea PK17
         |               |  i. s.: Libanophron astarte PK17
         |               |--Megaspilidae GE05
         |               |    |--Lagynodes Forster 1841 GM79 [Lagynodinae N91]
         |               |    `--Megaspilinae N91
         |               |         |--Megaspilus luscipennis MH11
         |               |         |--Conostigmus N91
         |               |         `--Dendrocerus carpenteri N91, M83
         |               `--Ceraphronidae [Calliceratidae] GE05
         |                    |--Lygocerus A71
         |                    |--Aphanogmus A71
         |                    `--Ceraphron Jurine 1807 GM79
         |                         |--C. achilles Dodd 1914 GM79
         |                         |--C. bispinosus MH11
         |                         `--C. javensis Girault 1917 G17
         `--+--+--Aculeata PK17
            |  `--+--Megalyridae HR11
            |     `--Trigonalidae [Archiglossata, Trigonaloidea] HR11
            |          |--Mimelogonalos N91
            |          |--Orthogonalys pulchella HR11
            |          |--Pseudogonalos hahnii PK17
            |          `--Taeniogonalos HR11
            |               |--T. gundlachii HR11
            |               `--T. venatoria R70
            `--+--Stephanidae [Stephanoidea] HR11
               |    |  i. s.: Megischus HR11
               |    |--Stephanus PK17 [Stephaninae GE05]
               |    |    `--S. serrator PK17
               |    `--Schlettererinae GE05
               |         |--Archaeostephanus corae GE05
               |         `--Schlettererius cinctipes N91
               `--Evanioidea PK17
                    |--Praeaulacidae GE05
                    |    |--Praeaulacus ramosus R02
                    |    `--Westratia R02
                    `--+--Aulaciformes GE05
                       `--Evaniidae [Cretevaniidae, Evaniiformes] GE05
                            |  i. s.: Andrenelia [Andreneliidae] GE05
                            |         Szepligetella AY04
                            |         Acanthinevania AY04
                            |         Protoparevania lourothi PK17
                            |--Brachygaster minuta HR11
                            `--+--Evaniella semaeoda HR11
                               `--Evania HR11
                                    |--E. albofascialis HR11
                                    `--E. appendigaster L02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

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