Brown sedge Carex brunnea, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.

Belongs within: Scirpeae.
Contains: 'Uncinia' section Uncinia, Carex subgenus Vignea, Carex subgenus Carex.

Carex is a large genus (over 1500 species) of sedges found in cool and temperate parts of the world. Some species are agricultural weeds in pasture and damp habitats. Members of the genus produce unisexual flowers with female flowers enclosed in a utricle. Female spikelets are single-flowered and arranged in spikes of two to numerous spikelets, whereas male spikelets are two- or more flowered (Moore & Edgar 1970). A group of mostly Southern Hemisphere species in which the spikelet rhachilla is produced into a hook have historically been recognised as a distinct genus Uncinia but phylogenetic analysis demonstrates this group to be embedded within a broader Carex. Basal members of Carex include the southeast Asian C. hypolytroides, in which the inflorescence is produced as a compound, interrupted panicle.

<==Carex Linnaeus 1753 [incl Uncinia Pers. 1807] ME70
    |--+--C. hypolytroides SB19
    |  `--C. siderosticta SB19
    `--+--+--+--+--C. phyllostachys SB19
       |  |  |  `--+--C. peregrina SB19
       |  |  |     `--+--C. macrostylos SB19
       |  |  |        `--C. pulicaris SB19
       |  |  `--+--C. lancea SB19
       |  |     `--+--C. ludwigii SB19
       |  |        `--+--C. capensis SB19
       |  |           `--+--C. spartea SB19
       |  |              `--C. uhligii SB19
       |  `--+--C. microglochin SB19
       |     |    |--C. m. ssp. microglochin D03
       |     |    `--C. m. ssp. fuegina D03
       |     `--+--+--C. simpliciuscula SB19
       |        |  `--+--C. myosuroides SB19
       |        |     `--C. parvula SB19 [=C. inversa f. parvula Kük. 1909 ME70]
       |        `--‘Uncinia’ sect. Uncinia SB19
       `--+--+--C. capillifolia SB19
          |  `--+--+--C. disticha SB19 [=Uncinia disticha Col. 1888 ME70]
          |     |  `--C. physodes SB19
          |     `--C. subg. Vignea SB19
          `--+--C. brunnea SB19
             `--+--C. filicina SB19
                `--C. subg. Carex SB19

Carex incertae sedis:
  C. abdita NC01
  C. abrupta H93
  C. albida [incl. C. sonomensis] H93
  C. albonigra H93
  C. alma H93
  C. alsophila B78
  C. amplectens H93
  C. amplifolia H93
  C. angustata H93 [=C. sterilis var. angustata V72; incl. C. eurycarpa H93, C. oxycarpa H93]
  C. athrostachya H93
  C. atrata O88
    |--C. a. ssp. atrata O88
    `--C. a. ssp. pullata O88
  C. atrofusca O88
    |--C. a. ssp. atrofusca O88
    `--C. a. ssp. minor nec C. fascicularis var. minor Boott in Hook. f. 1853 nec C. inversa var. minor Boott 1867 O88
  C. australis Link ex Boeck. 1877 (n. d.) ME70
  C. barbarae H93
  C. benghalensis B78
  C. bicolor C55b
  C. bigelowii CS77
  C. bolanderi H93
  C. brainerdii H93
  C. brevicaulis H93
  C. breweri H93
  C. californica H93
  C. canariensis KL98
  C. caryophyllea KL98
  C. chordorrhiza V72
  C. compacta [=Uncinia compacta] B78
  C. concinnoides H93
  C. congdonii H93
  C. contracta B78
  C. coxiana Petrie 1926 (n. d.) ME70
  C. cruenta O88
  C. curta C55a
  C. cusickii H93
  C. darwinii Boott. 1845 C06
    |--C. d. var. darwinii ME70
    `--C. d. var. aristata Clarke ex Kük. 1899 [=C. darwinii var. urolepis (Franch.) Kükenthal 1909] ME70
  C. davyi H93
  C. decidua D03
  C. densa H93 [=C. gayana var. densa D03; incl. C. breviligulata H93, C. vicaria H93]
  C. distachya KL98
  C. douglasii H93
  C. dudleyi H93
  C. eburnea V72
  C. ekmanii J87
  C. eleocharis MML75
  C. feta H93
  C. filifolia CL86
    |--C. f. var. filifolia H93
    `--C. f. var. erostrata [incl. C. exserta] H93
  C. firma PS98
  C. fissilis [incl. C. dietrichiae Boeckel 1875] B78
  C. fissuricola H93
  C. fracta H93
  C. fusca D06
  C. geyeri H93
  C. gigas H93
  C. globosa H93
  C. gracilior H93
  C. gynodynama H93
  C. haasteana Boeck. 1878 ME70
  C. haematostoma O88
  C. halliana [incl. C. oregonensis] H93
  C. harfordii [incl. C. montereyensis] H93
  C. hassei H93 [incl. C. aurea var. androgyna H93, C. pensylvanica f. androgyna V72]
  C. hattoriana P82
  C. heleonastes C55b
  C. helleri H93
  C. hendersonii H93
  C. heteroneura H93
    |--C. h. var. heteroneura H93
    `--C. h. var. epapillosa H93
  C. himalaica O88
  C. hirtella O88
  C. hirtifolia V72
  C. hirtissima H93
  C. hoodii H93
  C. hubbardii B00
  C. hypandra B78
  C. illota H93
  C. inanis O88
  C. incurva C55b
  C. incurviformis H93
    |--C. i. var. incurviformis H93
    `--C. i. var. danaensis H93
  C. indica B78
  C. infuscata O88
  C. inops [incl. C. pensylvanica var. vespertina] H93
  C. integra H93
  C. irrigua C55a
  C. jonesii H93
  C. juncifolia C55a
  C. kobomugi STK06
  C. krullii Boeck. 1882 (n. d.) ME70
  C. laeta O88
  C. laeviculmis H93
  C. lehmannii O88
  C. lemmonii H93
  C. leporina CA26
  C. leporinella H93
  C. leptalea [incl. C. microstachys, C. polytrichoides] H93
    |--C. l. var. leptalea V72
    `--C. l. var. harperi V72
  C. lobolepis B78
  C. longiacuminata Col. 1889 (n. d.) ME70
  C. luzulaifolia [=C. luzulaefolia (l. c.)] H93
  C. luzulina H93
    |--C. l. var. luzulina H93
    `--C. l. var. ablata H93
  C. lyngbyei H93
  C. macloviana BS00
  C. macrocephala T87
  C. maculata [incl. C. neurochlamys] B78
  C. magellanica D03
  C. mariposana [incl. C. paucifructus] H93
  C. maritima O88
  C. melanantha O88
  C. mendocinensis H93
  C. mertensii H93
  C. microptera [incl. C. festivella] H93
  C. misandra CS77
  C. monostachya DS04
  C. mucronata C55a
  C. multicaulis H93
  C. multicostata H93
  C. munda O88
  C. nakaoana O88
  C. nebrascensis H93
  C. neesiana C06
  C. nervina H93
  C. neurophora H93
  C. nigricans H93
  C. nivalis O88
  C. norvegica H93
  C. novae-selandiae Boeck. 1878 (n. d.) ME70
  C. nubigena O88
  C. nudata H93
  C. obispoensis H93
  C. obnupta H93
  C. obscura O88
    |--C. o. var. obscura O88
    `--C. o. var. brachycarpa O88
  C. occidentalis H93
  C. orbicularis O88
  C. pachystachya H93 (see below for synonymy)
  C. paludosa C55a
  C. panicea C06
  C. pansa H93
  C. parallela H44
  C. parryana H93
    |--C. p. var. parryana H93
    `--C. p. var. hallii H93
  C. parva O88
  C. perraudieriana KL98
  C. persoonii [incl. C. vitilis] C55b
  C. petasata [incl. C. liddonii] H93
  C. phaeocephala [incl. C. phaeocephala f. eastwoodiana] H93
  ‘Uncinia’ phleoides D03
  C. polyneura Col. 1889 (n. d.) ME70
  ‘Uncinia’ polyneura Col. 1887 (n. d.) ME70
  C. praeceptorum H93
  C. preissii [incl. C. thecata] B78
  C. preslii H93
  C. proposita H93
  C. pseudofoetida O88
  C. quadrangulata Col. 1885 (n. d.) ME70
  C. raynoldsii H93
  C. rotoensis Petrie 1926 (n. d.) ME70
  C. saliniformis [=C. salinaeformis (l. c.)] H93
  C. sartwelliana [incl. C. yosemitana] H93
  C. scabrata V72
  C. scabrifolia T03
  C. schottii H93
  C. scopulorum H93
    |--C. s. var. scopulorum H93
    `--C. s. var. bracteosa [incl. C. gymnoclada] H93
  C. sempervirens H09
  C. senta H93
  C. serratodens [incl. C. bifida] H93
  C. sexspicata Col. 1884 (n. d.) ME70
  C. sheldonii H93
  C. simulata H93
  C. specifica H93
  C. spectabilis H93
  C. spissa H93
  C. sprengelii V72
  C. straminiformis H93
  C. subbracteata H93
  C. subfusca [incl. C. teneraeformis] H93
  C. subnigricans H93
  C. subspathacea H44
  C. supina O88
  C. tahoensis H93
  C. tereticaulis B78
  C. teretiuscula Good. 1794 C06
  C. thouarsii RJ11
  C. tiogana H93
  C. tompkinsii H93
  C. trinervis BBM02
  C. triquetra H93
  C. tumulicola H93
  C. unilateralis H93
  C. ustulata C55b
  C. utriculata [incl. C. rostrata] H93
  C. vahlii [incl. C. alpina] C55b
  C. vallicola H93
  C. vernacula H93
  C. vulgaris B78
    |--C. v. var. vulgaris B78
    `--C. v. var. gaudichaudiana B78
  C. whitneyi [incl. C. jepsonii] H93
  Atratae group V72
    |--C. atratiformis V72
    |--C. buxbaumii V72
    `--C. media V72
  Bicolores group V72
    |--C. aurea V72
    `--C. garberi V72
  Cryptocarpae group V72
    |--C. crinita V72
    `--C. gynandra V72
  Deweyanae group V72
    |--C. bromoides V72
    `--C. deweyana V72
         |--C. d. ssp. deweyana H93
         `--C. d. ssp. leptopoda H93
  Digitatae group V72
    |--C. concinna V72
    |--C. pedunculata V72
    `--C. richardsonii V72
  Gracillimae group V72
    |--C. davisii V72
    |--C. formosa V72
    |--C. gracillima V72
    `--C. prasina V72
  Granulares group V72
    |--C. crawei V72
    `--C. granularis [incl. C. granularis var. haleana] V72
  Griseae group V72
    |--C. amphibola V72
    |    |--C. a. var. amphibola V72
    |    `--C. a. var. turgida [incl. C. grisea] V72
    `--C. conoidea V72
  Limosae group V72
    |--C. limosa V72
    `--C. paupercula V72
  Montanae group V72
    |--C. artitecta V72
    |--C. communis V72
    |    |  i. s.: C. c. f. gynandra non C. gynandra V72
    |    |--C. c. var. communis V72
    |    `--C. c. var. wheeleri V72
    |--C. deflexa V72
    |--C. emmonsii V72
    |--C. lucorum V72
    |--C. peckii V72
    |--C. pensylvanica V72
    |    |--C. p. var. pensylvanica V72
    |    `--C. p. var. digyna [incl. C. heliophila] V72
    |--C. rossii V72 [=C. novae-angliae var. rossii H93; incl. C. brevipes H93]
    |--C. rugosperma V72
    |    |--C. r. var. rugosperma V72
    |    `--C. r. var. tonsa [=C. umbellata var. tonsa] V72
    `--C. umbellata V72
  Oligocarpae group V72
    |--C. hitchcockiana V72
    `--C. oligocarpa V72
  Paniceae group V72
    |--C. livida [incl. C. grayana, C. livida var. radicaulis] V72
    |--C. tetanica V72
    |    |--C. t. var. tetanica V72
    |    `--C. t. var. meadii V72
    |--C. vaginata V72
    `--C. woodii V72
  Phyllostachyae group V72
    |--C. backii V72
    `--C. jamesii V72
  Squarrosae group V72
    |--C. frankii V72
    |--C. squarrosa V72
    `--C. typhina V72
  Vesicariae group V72
    |--C. oligosperma V72
    |--C. retrorsa V72
    |--C. tuckermanii V72
    `--C. vesicaria V72
         |--C. v. var. vesicaria [incl. C. inflata] H93
         `--C. v. var. major non C. inversa var. major [incl. C. exsiccata] H93
  Virescentes group V72
    |--C. hirsutella V72
    |--C. swanii [incl. C. virescens var. minima] V72
    `--C. virescens V72
  Vulpinae group V72
    |--C. alopecoidea V72
    |--C. crus-corvi V72
    |--C. laevivaginata V72
    `--C. stipata V72

Carex pachystachya H93 [incl. C. filiformis ssp. aematorhyncha f. gracilis non C. ternaria var. gracilis Cheesem. 1884 D03, C. pachystachya var. gracilis H93, C. olympica H93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 4 January 2022.

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