Carex

Grey sedge Carex divulsa, from here.


Belongs within: Cyperaceae.
Contains: Carex section Echinochlaenae.

Carex is a large genus (over 1500 species) of sedges found in cool and temperate parts of the world. Some species are agricultural weeds in pasture and damp habitats. Carex contains the subgenera Carex, with usually pedunculate and unisexual flower spikes, and Vignea, with sessile and usually bisexual spikes. Members of the subgenus Primocarex have solitary, terminal flower spikes that may be either bisexual or unisexual (Healy & Edgar 1980).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Perennial herbs, tufted, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Stems usually three-angled and solid, rarely terete and hollow. Leaves tristichous, usually linear, mostly crowded at base of stem and sheathing, sheath closed, with a minute, membranous ligule. Plants usually monoecious, rarely dioecious. Inflorescence a spike, cluster of spikes, or panicle; bracts leaf-like or setaceous. Spikes sessile or pedunculate, unisexual or bisexual, composed of numerous one-flowered spikelets, each subtended by a glume. Flowers unisexual, perianth 0. Male flower with three stamens (rarely two). Female flower a single pistil enclosed in an utricle; style 1, branched above to two or three stigmas projecting from utricle. Nut trigonous or biconvex, enclosed within persistent utricle.

Carex Linnaeus 1753 ME70
    |--C. subg. Carex HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Acutae non Cotula subsect. Acutae Allan 1961 HE80
    |    |    |--C. coriacea Hamlin 1954 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. gaudichaudiana Kunth 1837 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. geminata Schkuhr 1801 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. lessoniana Steudel 1840 HE80 [incl. C. polystachya Rich. 1832 non Swartz ex Wahl. 1803 ME70]
    |    |    |--C. sinclairii Boott in Cheeseman 1906 HE80
    |    |    |--C. subdola Boott 1845 HE80
    |    |    `--C. ternaria Boott in Hooker 1844 HE80 [incl. C. martinii Petrie 1926 non Lév. & Vaniot 1902 ME70]
    |    |--C. (sect. Capitellatae) capillacea Boott 1858 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Echinochlaenae HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Elatae HE80
    |    |    |--C. cockayniana Kükenthal in Cheeseman 1906 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. elingamita Hamlin 1958 HE80
    |    |    |--C. forsteri Wahlenberg 1803 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. iynx Nelmes 1944 HE80
    |    |    |--C. kermadecensis Petrie 1915 HE80 [incl. C. forsteri var. insularis Oliver 1910 ME70]
    |    |    |--C. longebrachiata Boeckeler 1877 [incl. C. longifolia Brown 1810 non Host 1809] HE80
    |    |    `--C. spinirostris Colenso 1883 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Gynobasidae KL98
    |    |    |--C. illegitima KL98
    |    |    `--C. oedipostyla Duval-Jouve 1870 (see below for synonymy) KL98
    |    |--C. (sect. Hirtae) hirta Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Maximae) pendula Hudson 1762 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Mitratae) breviculmis Brown 1810 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Pachystylae) pallescens Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Paludosae HE80
    |    |    |--C. bichenoviana Boott in Hooker 1858 HE80
    |    |    |--C. pumila Thunberg 1784 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. riparia Curtis 1783 HE80
    |    |    `--C. trifida Cavanilles 1799 HE80 [incl. C. rekkohu Petrie 1926 ME70]
    |    |--C. sect. Physocarpeae HE80
    |    |    |--C. carsei Petrie 1923 HE80
    |    |    |--C. inopinata Cook 1953 HE80
    |    |    `--C. lurida Wahlenberg 1803 HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Pseudocypereae HE80
    |    |    |--C. fascicularis Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--C. maorica Hamlin 1957 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Spirostachyae HE80
    |    |    |--C. demissa Hornemann in Sprengel 1826 HE80
    |    |    `--C. flaviformis Nelmes 1955 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Sylvaticae) sylvatica Hudson 1762 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Trachychlaenae) flacca Schreber 1771 HE80
    |    `--C. (sect. Tumidae) brownii Tuckerman 1843 HE80
    |--C. subg. Primocarex HE80
    |    |--C. acicularis Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [incl. C. inconspicua Col. 1896 non Steud. 1855 ME70]
    |    |--C. allanii Hamlin 1962 HE80
    |    |--C. enysii Petrie 1923 HE80
    |    `--C. pyrenaica Wahlenberg 1803 HE80
    |         |--C. p. var. pyrenaica HE80
    |         `--C. p. var. cephalotes (von Mueller) Kükenthal 1909 HE80 [=C. cephalotes von Mueller 1855 ME70]
    `--C. subg. Vignea HE80
         |--C. sect. Arenariae HE80
         |    |--C. kaloides Petrie 1881 HE80
         |    |--C. kirkii Petrie 1886 HE80 [incl. C. kirkii var. membranacea Kük. in Cheesem. 1906 ME70]
         |    |    |--C. k. var. kirkii HE80
         |    |    `--C. k. var. elatior Kükenthal in Cheeseman 1906 HE80
         |    `--C. muelleri Petrie 1886 HE80 [incl. C. viridis Petrie 1881 non Honck. 1792 ME70]
         |--C. sect. Bracteosae HE80
         |    |--C. pterocarpa Petrie 1899 HE80 [incl. C. thomsonii Petrie 1886 non Boott 1858 ME70]
         |    `--C. trachycarpa Cheeseman 1892 HE80
         |--C. (sect. Canescentes) lachenalii Schkuhr 1801 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (sect. Divisae) divisa Hudson 1762 HE80
         |--C. sect. Inversae HE80
         |    |--C. colensoi Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [incl. C. picta Col. 1889 non Steud. 1855 ME70]
         |    |--C. inversa Brown 1810 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--C. i. var. inversa ME70
         |    |    `--C. i. var. leichardtii Boeck. 1875 ME70
         |    `--C. resectans Cheeseman 1892 HE80 [incl. C. inversa var. radicata Cheesem. 1884 ME70]
         |--C. sect. Muehlenbergianae HE80
         |    |--C. divulsa Stokes in Withering 1787 [incl. C. muricata var. subramosa] HE80
         |    |--C. muricata Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |    `--C. spicata Hudson 1762 HE80
         |--C. (sect. Multiflorae) vulpinoidea Michaux 1803 HE80
         |--C. sect. Ovales HE80
         |    |--C. longii Mackenzie 1923 HE80
         |    |--C. ovalis Goodenough 1794 HE80
         |    `--C. scoparia Schkuhr ex von Willdenow 1805 HE80
         |--C. sect. Paniculatae HE80
         |    |--C. appressa Brown 1810 HE80 [=C. paniculata var. appressa (Br.) Cheesem. 1884 ME70]
         |    |--C. diandra Schrank 1781 HE80
         |    |--C. paniculata Linnaeus 1759 HE80
         |    |--C. secta Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--C. s. var. secta HE80
         |    |    `--C. s. var. tenuiculmis Petrie 1920 HE80
         |    |--C. sectoides (Kükenthal) Edgar in Moore & Edgar 1970 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--C. virgata Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (sect. Stellulatae) echinata Murray 1770 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         `--C. (sect. Stenorhynchae) otrubae Podpera 1922 HE80

Carex incertae sedis:
  C. abdita NC01
  C. atrata O88
    |--C. a. ssp. atrata O88
    `--C. a. ssp. pullata O88
  C. atrofusca O88
    |--C. a. ssp. atrofusca O88
    `--C. a. ssp. minor nec C. fascicularis var. minor Boott in Hook. f. 1853 nec C. inversa var. minor Boott 1867 O88
  C. australis Link ex Boeck. 1877 (n. d.) ME70
  C. bicolor C55b
  C. caespitosa C55a
  C. canariensis KL98
  C. canescens HE80
    |--C. c. var. canescens HE80
    `--C. c. var. robustior HE80
  C. capitata C55b
  C. caryophyllea KL98
  C. coxiana Petrie 1926 (n. d.) ME70
  C. cruenta O88
  C. curta C55a
  C. darwini A27
    |--C. d. var. darwini ME70
    `--C. d. var. aristata Clarke ex Kük. 1899 [=C. darwinii var. urolepis (Franch.) Kükenthal 1909] ME70
  C. davalliana D06
  C. decidua D03
  C. distachya KL98
  C. ekmanii J87
  C. eleocharis MML75
  C. filicina O88
  C. filifolia CL86
  C. filiformis D03
    |--C. f. ssp. filiformis D03
    `--C. f. ssp. aematorhyncha D03
         |--C. f. ssp. a. f. aematorhyncha D03
         `--C. f. ssp. a. f. gracilis non C. ternaria var. gracilis Cheesem. 1884 D03
  C. firma PS98
  C. fusca D06
  C. gayana D03
    |--C. g. var. gayana D03
    `--C. g. var. densa D03
  C. haasteana Boeck. 1878 ME70
  C. haematostoma O88
  C. hallerana H91
  C. hattoriana P82
  C. heleonastes C55b
  C. himalaica O88
  C. hirtella O88
  C. inanis O88
  C. incurva C55b
  C. infuscata O88
  C. interior DS04
  C. irrigua C55a
  C. juncifolia C55a
  C. kobomugi STK06
  C. krulli Boeck. 1882 (n. d.) ME70
  C. laeta O88
  C. lehmannii O88
  C. leporina CA27
  C. longiacuminata Col. 1889 (n. d.) ME70
  C. macloviana BS00
  C. macrocephala T87
  C. magellanica D03
  C. maritima O88
  C. melanantha O88
  C. microglochin O88
    |--C. m. ssp. microglochin D03
    `--C. m. ssp. fuegina D03
  C. monostachya DS04
  C. mucronata C55a
  C. munda O88
  C. nakaoana O88
  C. nivalis O88
  C. novae-selandiae Boeck. 1878 (n. d.) ME70
  C. nubigena O88
  C. obscura O88
    |--C. o. var. obscura O88
    `--C. o. var. brachycarpa O88
  C. oederi A27
    |--C. o. var. oederi A27
    `--C. o. var. cataractae A27
  C. orbicularis O88
  C. paludosa C55a
  C. parva O88
  C. perraudieriana KL98
  C. persoonii [incl. C. vitilis] C55b
  C. pilulifera V09
  C. polyneura Col. 1889 (n. d.) ME70
  C. preissii GK00
  C. pseudocyperus D03
    |--C. p. ssp. pseudocyperus D03
    `--C. p. ssp. haenkeana D03
  C. pseudofoetida O88
  C. quadrangulata Col. 1885 (n. d.) ME70
  C. remota HE80
  C. richardsonii NC01
  C. rostrata GM03
  C. rotoensis Petrie 1926 (n. d.) ME70
  C. scabrifolia T03
  C. sempervirens H09
  C. sexspicata Col. 1884 (n. d.) ME70
  C. supina O88
  C. trinervis BBM02
  C. ustulata C55b
  C. vacilans G60
  C. vahlii [incl. C. alpina] C55b

Carex (sect. Capitellatae) capillacea Boott 1858 HE80 [=C. rara ssp. capillacea (Boott) Kük.) 1909 ME70; incl. C. wallii Petrie 1921 ME70]

Carex cockayniana Kükenthal in Cheeseman 1906 HE80 [=C. forsteri var. cockayniana (Kük.) Kük. 1909 ME70; incl. C. cinnamomea Cheeseman 1882 non Boott 1846 ME70]

Carex coriacea Hamlin 1954 HE80 [incl. C. ternaria var. pallida Cheesem. 1884 ME70, C. ternaria var. minor f. pallida (Cheesem.) Kük. 1909 ME70]

Carex (sect. Stellulatae) echinata Murray 1770 HE80 [incl. C. stellulata var. australis Kük. 1909 nec C. australis Link ex Boeck. 1877 nec C. australis Kirk 1894 ME70, C. stellulata Good. 1794 ME70]

Carex fascicularis Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [=C. forsteri var. fascicularis (Boott) Hook. f. 1864 ME70, C. pseudocyperus var. fascicularis (Boott) Boott 1867 ME70]

Carex forsteri Wahlenberg 1803 HE80 [incl. C. punctulata Rich. 1832 ME70, C. recurva Schkuhr 1801 non Huds. 1778 ME70, C. semiforsteri Clarke in Cheesem. 1906 ME70]

Carex gaudichaudiana Kunth 1837 HE80 [=C. vulgaris var. gaudichaudiana (Kunth) Boott 1867 ME70; incl. C. gaudichaudiana var. humilior Kük. 1909 ME70]

Carex geminata Schkuhr 1801 HE80 [incl. C. confusa Hamlin 1954 ME70, C. ternaria var. gracilis Cheesem. 1884 ME70, C. ternaria var. minor f. nigrescens Kük. 1909 ME70]

Carex inversa Brown 1810 HE80 [incl. C. inversa var. costata Kük. 1909 ME70, C. inversa var. minor Boott 1867 non C. fascicularis var. minor Boott in Hook. f. 1853 ME70, C. inversa f. parvula Kük. 1909 ME70, C. smaragdina Col. 1895 ME70]

Carex (sect. Canescentes) lachenalii Schkuhr 1801 HE80 [incl. C. lagopina Wahl. 1803 ME70, C. parkeri Petrie 1881 ME70]

Carex maorica Hamlin 1957 HE80 [incl. C. fascicularis var. minor Boott 1853 ME70, C. forsteri var. minor (Boott) Hook. f. 1864 ME70]

Carex oedipostyla Duval-Jouve 1870 [incl. C. ambigua Link 1799 non Moench 1794, C. olyssiponensis Samp. 1909 non Steudel 1855] KL98

Carex pumila Thunberg 1784 HE80 [incl. C. littorea Labill. 1806 ME70, C. pumila ssp. littorea (Labill.) Kük. 1899 ME70, C. pumila var. macrocarpa Carse 1916 ME70]

Carex secta Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [=C. appressa var. secta (Boott) Kük. 1909 ME70, C. paniculata var. secta (Boott) Cheesem. 1884 ME70, C. virgata var. secta (Boott) Hook. f. 1864 ME70]

Carex sectoides (Kükenthal) Edgar in Moore & Edgar 1970 HE80 [=C. appressa var. sectoides Kük. 1909 ME70, C. secta var. sectoides (Kük.) Cheesem. 1925 ME70]

Carex spinirostris Colenso 1883 HE80 [incl. C. vacillans Boott in Hook. f. 1853 non Drejer in Hartm. 1846 ME70]

Carex virgata Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [=C. appressa var. virgata (Boott) Kük. 1909 ME70, C. paniculata var. virgata (Boott) Cheesem. 1884 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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