Cheesemania radicata, copyright Tindo2.

Belongs within: Brassicales.
Contains: Descurainia, Erysimum, Alyssum, Draba, Brassica, Caulanthus, Streptanthus, Thelypodium, Lepidium, Cardamine, Rorippa, Arabis.

The Brassicaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbs and sub-shrubs. The alternative name Cruciferae (meaning 'cross-bearer') refers to the cross-shaped flowers of members of this family, with four petals. The Brassicaceae include a number of species grown as food plants, the most important of which are species of the genus Brassica. Others include radish Raphanus sativus, rocket Eruca sativa and watercress Nasturtium officinale. The horseradish Armoracia rusticana is grown for its root, pungent when cut and used as a condiment. The mouse-ear cress Arabidopsis thaliana has become a significant model organism used in research on plant genetics.

Tribes within the Brassicaceae can be distinguished on the basis of characters of the fruits and cotyledons (Allan 1961). Members of the Arabideae have cotyledons that are accumbent (with the radicle lying perpendicular to the cotyledons) and a fruit that is a silique (an elongate capsule formed from two fused carpels more than three times as long as wide). In Lepideae and Sisymbrieae the cotyledons are incumbent (lying parallel to the radicle); Sisymbrieae have the fruit as a silique whereas that of Lepideae is a short silique or a silicle (less than three times as long as wide). Members of the Lepideae include the endemic New Zealand genus Notothlaspi in which pods are broadly winged and contain multiple seeds per cell (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Annual to perennial herbs or subshrubs with mostly alternate exstipulate leaves. Flowers perfect, regular, or nearly so, usually in bractless racemes; sepals 4, petals 4-(0); stamens usually 6, tetradynamous; anthers 2-(1)-celled. Ovary usually of two united carpels, divided by a thin membrane into 'cells'; stigmas 2, often connate; fruit usually dehiscent. Seeds usually without endosperm; cotyledons accumbent, incumbent or sometimes conduplicate.

<==Brassicaceae [Cruciales, Cruciferae]
    |--Lepideae A61
    |    |--Lepidium LM98
    |    `--Notothlaspi Hook. f. 1862 A61
    |         |--N. australe Hook. f. 1864 [=Thlaspi australe Hook. f. 1855] A61
    |         |    |--N. a. var. australe A61
    |         |    `--N. a. var. stellatum Kirk 1899 A61
    |         `--N. rosulatum Hook. f. 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--Sisymbrieae A61
    |    |--Ischnocarpus Schulz 1924 A61
    |    |    `--I. novae-zelandiae (Hook. f.) Schulz 1924 [=Sisymbrium novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1864] A61
    |    |--Sisymbrium M99
    |    |    |--S. altissimum H93
    |    |    |--S. erysimoides H93
    |    |    |--S. irio M99
    |    |    |--S. loeselii H93
    |    |    |--S. officinale GK00
    |    |    |--S. orientale KM08
    |    |    |--S. polyceratium C55b
    |    |    |--S. sophia C06
    |    |    `--S. thellungii H90
    |    |--Pachycladon Hook. f. 1867 G-J91, A61
    |    |    |--P. crenata Phillipson 1957 A61
    |    |    `--P. novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1867 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--Iti Garnock-Jones & Johnson 1988 G-J91
    |         `--I. lacustris G-J91
    `--Arabideae A61
         |--Cardamine A61
         |--Rorippa A61
         |--Arabis PT98
         `--Cheesemania Schulz 1929 A61
              |--C. enysii (Cheesem.) Schulz 1929 (see below for synonymy) A61
              |--C. fastigiata (Hook. f.) Schulz 1929 (see below for synonymy) A61
              |    |--C. f. var. fastigiata A61
              |    `--C. f. var. stellata Allan 1947 A61
              |--C. latesiliqua (Cheesem.) Schulz 1929 A61 (see below for synonymy)
              |--C. radicata A61
              `--C. wallii (Carse) Allan 1947 [=Nasturtium wallii Carse 1926] A61

Brassicaceae incertae sedis:
  Isatis tinctoria PT01
  Lobularia maritima PT01
  Arabidopsis thaliana (Linnaeus) Heynhold 1842 PT01, AS12
  Arcyosperma primulifolium O88
  Christolea crassifolia O88
  Chrysobraya glaricola O88
  Desideria nepalensis O88
  Dilophia Thomson 1853 KC01
    `--D. salsa O88
  Dontostemon pectinatus O88
  Ermaniopsis pumila O88
  Eutrema heterophyllum O88
  Glaribraya lowndesii O88
  Loxostemon pulchellus O88
  Megacarpaea polyandra O88
  Phaeonychium parryoides O88
  Pycnoplinthopsis bhutanica O88
  Torularia humilis O88
  Alliaria petiolata TG88
  Cardaria Y98
    |--C. chalepensis H93
    |--C. draba [incl. C. draba var. repens] H93
    `--C. pubescens [incl. C. pubescens var. elongata] H93
  Coronopus Y98
    |--C. didymus Y98
    `--C. squamatus H93
  Clypeola jonthlaspi PT98
  Hirschfeldia incana [incl. H. adpressa, Brassica geniculata] H93
  Erucaria hispanica AGF98
  Zilla spinosa AGF98
  Farsetia hamiltonii PP07
  Conringia orientalis H91
  Capsella PT98
    |--C. bursa-pastoris PT98
    `--C. procumbens [incl. C. elliptica] C06
  Rapistrum rugosum M99, M65
  Eruca vesicaria H93
    |--E. v. ssp. vesicaria H93
    `--E. v. ssp. sativa H93
  Cakile KM08
    |--C. edentula [incl. C. edentula var. californica] H93
    `--C. maritima KM08
  Iberis PT01
    |--I. amara C55b
    `--I. umbellata PT01
  Lunaria PT01
    |--L. annua PT01
    `--L. rediviva C55a
  Hutchinsia C55a
    |--H. alpina C55a
    |--H. petraea [=Lepidium petraeum] C55a
    `--H. procumbens H93
  Braya O88
    |--B. alpina C55b
    `--B. oxycarpa O88
  Ermania O88
    |--E. himalayensis O88
    `--E. linearis O88
  Lignariella hobsonii O88
    |--L. h. ssp. hobsonii O88
    `--L. h. ssp. serpens O88
  Pegaeophyton O88
    |--P. minutum O88
    `--P. scapiflorum O88
  Staintoniella O88
    |--S. nepalensis O88
    `--S. verticillata O88
  Aethionema saxatile (Linnaeus) Brown 1812 PL04
    |--A. s. ssp. saxatile Y98
    `--A. s. ssp. creticum Y98
  Bunias Y98
    |--B. erucago Y98
    `--B. orientalis C55b
  Calepina PT98
    |--C. corvini [incl. Bunias cochlearioides] C55b
    `--C. irregularis PT98
  Smelowskia Meyer ex Ledebour 1830 (nom. cons. prop.) (see below for synonymy) A-S03
    |--S. alba [=Sisymbrium album, *Sm. cinerea Ledebour 1830 (nom. illeg.)] A-S03
    |--S. ovalis H93
    |    |--S. o. var. ovalis H93
    |    `--S. o. var. congesta H93
    `--*Redowskia’ sophiifolia von Chamisso & Schltdl. 1826 A-S03
  Stenopetalum G04
    |--S. filifolium G04
    |--S. lineare H90
    |--S. nutans H90
    |--S. pedicellare G04
    |--S. sphaerocarpum H90
    `--S. velutinum H90
  Hornungia KM08
    |--H. petraea H91
    `--H. procumbens KM08
  Descurainia ES06
  Erophila PT98
    |--E. macrocarpa PT98
    |--E. verna G88
    |    |--E. v. ssp. verna H90
    |    `--E. v. ssp. praecox H90
    `--E. vulgaris C06
  Biscutella PT98
    |--B. didyma PT98
    |--B. laevigata D37
    `--B. prealpina Raffaelli & Baldoin 1997 PS98
  Sinapis PT98
    |--S. alba H93 [=Brassica alba PT01; incl. B. hirta H93]
    |--S. arvensis [incl. Brassica kaber, B. kaber var. pinnatifida, B. kaber var. schkuhriana] H93
    |--S. dissecta C55a
    `--S. nigra C55b
  Diplotaxis GR98
    |--D. erucoides GR98
    |--D. muralis C55b
    `--D. tenuifolia C55b
  Hesperis PT01
    |--H. matronalis H09
    |    |--H. m. ssp. matronalis H09
    |    `--H. m. ssp. candida H09
    `--H. oblongifolia H09
  Barbarea GR98
    |--B. australis H90
    |--B. grayi H90
    |--B. orthoceras [incl. B. orthoceras var. dolichocarpa] H93
    |--B. praecox C06
    |--B. verna PT01
    `--B. vulgaris GR98
         |--B. v. ssp. vulgaris GR98
         `--B. v. ssp. arcuata GR98
  Heliophila CV06
    |--H. deserticola CV06
    |    |--H. d. var. deserticola CV06
    |    `--H. d. var. micrantha CV06
    `--H. obibensis CV06
  Matthiola M99
    |--M. annua D59
    |--M. bicornis PT01
    |--M. glabra D59
    |--M. incana M99
    `--M. sinuata PT98
  Erysimum H93
  Raphanus PT01
    |--R. raphanistrum PT98
    `--R. sativus W02
         |--R. s. var. sativus W02
         |--R. s. var. longipinnatus P88
         `--R. s. var. oleiformis W02
  Malcolmia PL04
    |--M. africana H93
    |--M. chia PT98
    |--M. flexuosa PT98
    |--M. littorea C74
    |--M. macrocalyx (Halácsy) Rech. 1929 PL04
    |    |--M. m. ssp. macrocalyx PL04
    |    `--M. m. ssp. scyria (Rech.) Ball 1963 PL04
    `--M. maritima PT01
  Nasturtium D07
    |--N. microphyllum HE80
    |--N. officinale BMM99
    `--N. pyrenaicum C55a
  Alyssum PL04
  Thlaspi H91
    |--T. alliaceum C55b
    |--T. alpestre C55b
    |--T. andersonii O88
    |--T. arvense O88
    |--T. californicum [=T. alpestre var. californicum, T. montanum var. californicum] H93
    |--T. cochlearioides O88
    |--T. magellanicum D03
    |--T. montanum [incl. T. fendleri var. hesperium, T. glaucum var. hesperium] H93
    `--T. perfoliatum H91
  Draba O88
  Brassica CD07
  Harmsiodoxa M99
    |--H. blennodioides M99
    |--H. brevipes H90
    |    |--H. b. var. brevipes H90
    |    `--H. b. var. major H90
    `--H. puberula M99
  Blennodia M99
    |--B. canescens H90
    `--B. pterosperma M99
  Cochlearia L. 1753 KC01
    |--C. armoracia C06
    |--C. anglica G60
    |--C. cochlearioides [incl. C. flava] TS72
    |--C. danica G60
    |--C. officinalis G60
    |    |--C. o. var. officinalis H93
    |    `--C. o. var. arctica H93
    `--C. rusticana C55b
  Camelina H93
    |--C. alyssum H90
    |--C. microcarpa H93
    `--C. sativa C06
  Senebiera Decandolle 1799 C06, D99
    |--S. coronopus C55b
    |--S. didyma C06
    |--S. integrifolia Decandolle 1799 D99
    `--S. pinnatifida Decandolle 1799 D99
  Anelsonia eurycarpa [=Phoenicaulis eurycarpa] H93
  Armoracia rusticana H93
  Athysanus pusillus H93
  Aubrieta deltoidea H93
    |--A. d. ssp. deltoidea H09
    `--A. d. ssp. falcata H09
  Caulanthus H93
  Caulostramina jaegeri [=Thelypodium jaegeri] H93
  Chorispora tenella H93
  Cusickiella H93
    |--C. douglasii [incl. Draba douglasii var. crockeri] H93
    `--C. quadricostata [=Draba quadricostata] H93
  Dithyrea H93
    |--D. californica H93
    |--D. maritima H93
    `--D. wislizeni R35
  Erucastrum gallicum H93
  Euclidium syriacum H93
  Guillenia H93
    |--G. flavescens [=Thelypodium flavescens] H93
    |--G. lasiophylla (see below for synonymy) H93
    `--G. lemmonii [=Thelypodium lemmonii] H93
  Halimolobos H93
    |--H. jaegeri [=H. diffusa var. jaegeri] H93
    `--H. virgata H93
  Heterodraba unilateralis H93
  Idahoa scapigera H93
  Lesquerella H93
    |--L. arctica H44
    |--L. fendleri KIW98
    |--L. kingii H93
    |    |--L. k. ssp. kingii H93
    |    |--L. k. ssp. bernardina H93
    |    `--L. k. ssp. latifolia H93
    |--L. occidentalis [incl. L. cusickii] H93
    `--L. tenella H93
  Lyrocarpa coulteri H93
    |--L. c. var. coulteri H93
    `--L. c. var. palmeri H93
  Phoenicaulis cheiranthoides [incl. P. cheiranthoides ssp. glabra] H93
  Physaria chambersii H93
  Polyctenum fremontii H93
    |--P. f. var. fremontii H93
    `--P. f. var. confertum H93
  Sibara H93
    |--S. deserti H93
    |--S. filifolia H93
    |--S. rosulata H93
    `--S. virginica H93
  Stanleya H93
    |--S. elata H93
    |--S. pinnata H93
    |    |--S. p. var. pinnata H93
    |    `--S. p. var. inyoensis H93
    `--S. viridiflora H93
  Streptanthella longirostris [incl. S. longirostris var. derelicta] H93
  Streptanthus H93
  Subularia aquatica H93
    |--S. a. var. aquatica H93
    `--S. a. var. americana H93
  Teesdalia H93
    |--T. coronopifolia H93
    `--T. nudicaulis H64
  Thelypodium H93
  Thysanocarpus H93
    |--T. conchuliferus [=T. laciniatus var. conchuliferus] H93
    |--T. curvipes [incl. T. c. var. elegans, T. c. var. eradiatus, T. c. var. longistylus] H93
    |--T. laciniatus (see below for synonymy) H93
    `--T. radians H93
  Tropidocarpum H93
    |--T. capparideum H93
    `--T. gracile [incl. T. gracile var. dubium] H93
  Isatides microcarpa Saporta 1889 CBH93
  Carrichtera annua H90
  Cuphonotus H90
    |--C. andraeanus H90
    `--C. humistratus H90
  Phlegmatospermum H90
    |--P. cochlearinum H90
    `--P. eremaeum H90
  Turritis glabra H90
  Arabidella H90
    |--A. eremigena H90
    |--A. glaucescens H90
    |--A. nasturtium H90
    |--A. procumbens H90
    `--A. trisecta H90
  Menkea australis H90
  Drabastrum alpestre H90
  Geococcus pusillus H90
  Irenepharsus H90
    |--I. magicus H90
    `--I. trypherus H90
  Pachymitus cardaminoides H90
  Cryptospora Kar. & Kir. 1842 KC01
  Guepinia Bastard 1821 KC01
  Physalidium Fenzl 11866 KC01

Cheesemania enysii (Cheesem.) Schulz 1929 [=Cardamine enysii Cheesem. ex Kirk 1899, Nasturtium enysii Cheesem. 1911] A61

Cheesemania fastigiata (Hook. f.) Schulz 1929 [=Arabis fastigiata Hook. f. 1855, Cardamine fastigiata Hook. f. 1864, Nasturtium fastigiatum (Hook. f.) Cheesem. 1911; incl. Pachycladon elongata Buchan. 1887, Notothlaspi hookeri Buchan. 1888] A61

Cheesemania latesiliqua (Cheesem.) Schulz 1929 A61 [=Cardamine latesiliqua Cheesem. 1883 A61, Nasturtium latesiliqua Cheesem. 1883 A61; incl. N. gibbsii Cheesem. 1925 A61, Cheesemania gibbsii (Cheesem.) Schulz 1929 G-J91, A61]

Guillenia lasiophylla [=Thelypodium lasiophyllum; incl. T. lasiophyllum var. inalienum, T. lasiophyllum var. rigidum, T. lasiophyllum var. utahense] H93

Notothlaspi rosulatum Hook. f. 1864 [incl. N. rosulatum var. hursthousei Petrie 1926, N. notabilis Buchan. 1882] A61

Pachycladon novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1867 [=Braya novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1864; incl. P. glabra Buchanan 1882, P. novae-zelandiae var. glabra (Buchanan) Kirk 1899] A61

Smelowskia Meyer ex Ledebour 1830 (nom. cons. prop.) [incl. Gorodkovia Botsch. & Karav. 1959, Hedinia Ostenfeld 1922, Redowskia von Chamisso & Schltdl. 1826 (nom. rej. prop.), Sinosophiopsis Al-Shehbaz 2000] A-S03

Thysanocarpus laciniatus [incl. T. laciniatus var. crenatus, T. laciniatus var. hitchcockii, T. laciniatus var. ramosus, T. laciniatus var. rigidus] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A-S03] Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 2003. Proposal to conserve the name Smelowskia against Redowskia (Brassicaceae). Taxon 52: 360–361.

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[D99] Decandolle, C. 1799. Note sur quelques genres de la famille des siliculeuses, et en particulier sur le nouveau genre Senebiera. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (22): 172.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[ES06] Erber, D., & M. Schöller. 2006. Revision of the Cryptocephalus-species of the Canary Islands and Madeira (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 85–107.

[G-J91] Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1991. Seed morphology and anatomy of the New Zealand genera Cheesemania, Ischnocarpus, Iti, Notothlaspi and Pachycladon (Brassicaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 71–82.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[G88] Grubb, P. J. 1988. The uncoupling of disturbance and recruitment, two kinds of seed bank, and persistence of plant populations at the regional and local scales. Annales Zoologici Fennici 25: 23–26.

[H44] Hammer, M. 1944. Studies on the oribatids and collemboles of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 141 (3): 1–210.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H64] Hogg, J. 1864. List of rarer phanerogamous plants discovered in the south-east of Durham since 1829. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 96.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LM98] Lange, P. J. de, & B. G. Murray. 1998. Senecio repangae (Asteraceae): a new endemic species from the north-eastern North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 509–519.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27–46.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[TS72] Thaker, D. N., & S. D. Sabnis. 1972. Occurrence of Cochlearia cochlearioides (Roth) Sant. & Mah. & Campanula benthamii Wall. ex Kitamura in Gujarat State, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 227–229.

[W02] Wyss, U. 2002. Feeding behaviour of plant-parasitic nematodes. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 233–259. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Last updated: 4 January 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS