Ranunculaceae

Alpine meadow-rue Thalictrum alpinum, photographed by Franco Fenaroli.


Belongs within: Ranunculales.
Contains: Aconitum, Delphinium, Anemone, Clematis, Ranunculus.

The Ranunculaceae is a cosmopolitan family of mostly herbaceous plants, including the buttercups and related species. Many members of the Ranunculaceae are popular as garden plants.

Characters (from Whittemore & Parfitt): Herbs, sometimes woody or herbaceous climbers or low shrubs, perennial or annual, often rhizomatous. Stems unarmed. Leaves usually basal and cauline, alternate or sometimes opposite, rarely whorled, simple or variously compound; stipules present or absent; petioles usually present, often proximally sheathing. Leaf blade undivided or more commonly divided or compound, base cordate, sometimes truncate or cuneate, margins entire, toothed, or incised; venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, cymes, umbels, panicles, or spikes, or flowers solitary, flowers pedicellate or sessile. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, inconspicuous or showy, radially or bilaterally symmetric; sepaloid bracteoles absent; perianth hypogynous; sepals usually imbricate, 3-6(-20), distinct, often petaloid and colored, occasionally spurred; petals 0-26, distinct (rarely connate), plane, cup-shaped, funnel-shaped, or spurred, conspicuous or greatly reduced; nectary usually present, rarely absent; stamens 5-many, distinct; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; staminodes usually absent; pistils 1-many; styles present or absent, often persistent in fruit as beak. Fruits achenes, follicles, or rarely utricles, capsules, or berries, often aggregated into globose to cylindric heads. Seeds 1-many per ovary, never stalked, not arillate; endosperm abundant; embryo usually small.

Ranunculaceae
    |--Coptidoideae T00
    |    |--Coptis T00
    |    `--Xanthorhiza T00
    |--Ranunculoideae T00
    |    |--Ranunculus GM-C02
    |    `--Helleborus HB03 [Helleboroideae T00]
    |         |--H. foetidus HB03
    |         `--H. viridis C55b
    `--Thalictrum [Isopyroideae] T00
         |--T. alpinum O88
         |    |--T. a. var. alpinum O88
         |    `--T. a. var. minutissimum O88
         |--T. angustifolium O88
         |--T. cultratum O88
         |--T. elegans O88
         |--T. flavum LDB98
         |--T. foetidum O88
         |--T. glareosum O88
         |--T. platycarpum O88
         |--T. rutifolium O88
         |--T. setulosinerve O88
         `--T. virgatum O88

Ranunculaceae incertae sedis:
  Aconitum D01
  Delphinium D01
  Aquilegia PT01
    |--A. chrysantha RS98
    |--A. einseleana PS98
    |--A. flavellata RS98
    |--A. moorcroftiana O88
    |--A. viscosa C55a
    `--A. vulgaris PT01
  Anemone BA03
  Nigella PL04
    |--N. arvensis Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |    |--N. a. ssp. arvensis PL04
    |    |--N. a. ssp. glauca PT98
    |    `--N. a. ssp. rechingeri (Tutin) Tutin 1964 PL04
    |--N. damascena PT01
    `--N. sativa C55a
  Clematis BVJ01
  Adonis PT98
    |--A. autumnalis C55b
    |--A. microcarpa PT98
    |--A. nepalensis O88
    `--A. vernalis TG88
  Calliantheum pimpinelloides O88
  Caltha O88
    |--C. appendiculata D03
    |--C. dionaefolia CL85
    |--C. govaniana O88
    |--C. novae-zealandiae T27
    |--C. palustris O88
    |    |--C. p. var. palustris O88
    |    `--C. p. var. himalensis O88
    `--C. scaposa O88
  Cimicifuga foetida O88
  Oxygraphis polypetala O88
  Paraquilegia microphylla O88
  Paroxygraphis sikkimensis O88
  Trollius pumilus O88
    |--T. p. f. pumilus O88
    `--T. p. f. sikkimensis O88
  Garidella nigellastrum PT98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197-201.

[BVJ01] Brandenburg, W. A., J. G. van de Vooren & C. E. Jarvis. 2001. Lectotypification and description of Clematis viticella L. (Ranunculaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 13-23.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311-319.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75-103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GM-C02] Gomez, B., C. Martín-Closas, G. Barale, N. Solé de Porta, F. Thévenard & G. Guignard. 2002. Frenelopsis (Coniferales: Cheirolepidiaceae) and related male organ genera from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Palaeontology 45 (5): 997-1036.

[HB03] Hong, S. G., K. S. Bae, M. Herzberg, A. Titze & M.-A. Lachance. 2003. Candida kunwiensis sp. nov., a yeast associated with flowers and bumblebees. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 367-372.

[LDB98] Lenssen, J. P. M., G. E. ten Dolle & C. W. P. M. Blom. 1998. The effect of flooding on the recruitment of reed marsh and tall forb plant species. Plant Ecology 139: 13-23.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27-46.

[RS98] Ramsey, J., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467-501.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

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