Barley Hordeum vulgare, from here.

Belongs within: Pooideae.

Hordeum, the barleygrasses, is a genus of temperate grasses of which H. vulgare is the commercially grown barley. Other species, however, may be regarded as weed species.

Characters (from Flora of China): Plants annual or perennial. Culms usually erect. Leaf sheath of cauline leaves split almost to base; ligule membranous or leathery-membranous; auricles present or absent; leaf blade usually flat. Spike dense, usually without a terminal spikelet; rachis short, brittle, rarely flexible. Spikelets usually 3 per node, in regular rows, with 1 (or 2) florets; lateral spikelets usually pedicellate, rarely sessile, often reduced and much smaller than central spikelet; central spikelet usually sessile, rarely pedicellate, perfect. Glumes narrow, subulate-setaceous, sometimes lanceolate dilated at base, inconspicuously 1–3-veined, not keeled. Lemma subrounded abaxially, leathery, rarely leathery-membranous, 5-veined, not keeled, awned or awnless. Palea almost equaling lemma, glabrous, scabrous, or ciliate along keels. Lodicules broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate. Caryopsis usually adnate to lemma and palea, rarely free, oblong, concave furrowed on inner side, apex hairy. x = 7.

    |--H. brevisubulatum SS05
    |    |--H. b. var. brevisubulatum SS05
    |    `--H. b. ssp. nevskianum (Bowden) Tzvelev 1971 [=H. nevskianum Bowden 1965] SS05
    |--H. bulbosum PT98
    |--H. comosum D03
    |--H. distichum TG88
    |--H. geniculatum GK00
    |--H. glaucum HE80
    |--H. hexastichon C55
    |--H. jubatum C55
    |--H. leporinum R-CT01 [=H. murinum ssp. leporinum PT98]
    |--H. murinum GK00
    |--H. secalinum D03
    |    |--H. s. var. secalinum D03
    |    `--H. s. var. chilense D03
    |--H. spontaneum MH98
    |--H. vulgare GPWG01
    `--H. zeocriton C55

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373-457.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SS05] Srivastava, S. K. & K. C. Sekar. 2005. Contribution to the flora of Himachal Pradesh from Pin Valley National Park. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 159-162.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

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