Phalacrotophora epeirae, copyright John R. Maxwell.

Belongs within: Phoridae.
Contains: Melaloncha, Megaselia.

The Metopininae are a diverse group of scuttle flies that generally lack strong isolated bristles on the tibiae. Members of the genus Beckerina have two or four strongly divergent supra-antennal bristles that are usually more or less reclinate and porrect; in other metopinines, these bristles (if present) are not strongly divergent and usually proclinate (Petersen 1987).

Characters (from Petersen 1987): Frons sometimes bare along margins or on anteroventral half; supra-antennal bristles variable. Tibiae usually without bristles (exceptionally with a single anterodorsal bristle very near base on mid and hind tibiae) or with rows of strong setae. Wing generally fully developed, but sometimes reduced, rudimentary, or absent in female of some species.

<==Metopininae B04
    |  i. s.: Melittophora salti B04
    |         Melaloncha B04
    |         Sinophoritis Hong 2002 H02
    |           `--*S. bikerkosa Hong 2002 H02
    |         Latiarista Hong 2002 H02
    |           `--*L. intermixta Hong 2002 H02
    |--Beckerina [Beckerinini] P87
    |    |--B. aliena P87
    |    `--B. umbrimargo P87
    |--Gymnophorini B10
    |    |--Megaselia B10
    |    `--Gymnophora B10
    |         |--G. arcuata B10
    |         |--G. luteiventris P87
    |         `--G. spiracularis B10
    `--Metopinini B10
         |--Ecituncula B10
         |--Ecitophora B10
         |--Ecitoptera B10
         |--Ecitomyia wheeleri B10, P87
         |--Rhabdomyia setosa B10
         |--Lecanocerus compressiceps P87, B10
         |--*Syneura cocciphila B10, P87
         |--Woodiphora magnipalpis P87
         |--Cremersia spinicauda P87, B10
         |--Zyziphora hirtifrons P87
         |--Myrmosicarius texanus P87, B10
         |--Auxanommatidia californica P87
         |--Physoptera vesiculata P87, B10
         |--Trophithauma rostratum P87, B10
         |--Cataclinusa pachycondylae P87, B10
         |--Stenophorina petiolata P87
         |--Chonocephalus americanus P87
         |--Xanionotum mexicanum P87
         |--Commoptera solenopsidis P87, B10
         |--Acontistoptera B10
         |    |--A. brasiliensis P87
         |    `--A. melanderi P87
         |--Diocophora P87
         |    |--D. appretiata B10
         |    `--D. disparifrons P87
         |--Pericyclocera P87
         |    |--P. cata P87
         |    `--P. floricola P87
         |--Pseudacteon P87
         |    |--P. formicarum A71
         |    `--P. onyx P87
         |--Trophodeinus P87
         |    |--T. furcatus [=Bactropalpus furcatus] B10
         |    `--T. pygmaeus B10
         |--Metopina [incl. Typhlophorina] B10
         |    |--M. goeleti Grimaldi 1989 RJ93
         |    |--M. pachycondylae A71
         |    `--M. subarcuata B10
         |--Puliciphora B10
         |    |--P. borinquenensis B10
         |    |--P. imbecilla B10
         |    `--P. occidentalis P87
         |--Apocephalus P87
         |    |--A. asymmetricus B10
         |    |--A. (Mesophora) borealis P87
         |    `--A. wheeleri B10
         |--Rhyncophoromyia P87
         |    |--R. conica P87
         |    |--R. maculineura B10
         |    `--R. trivittata B10
         |--Neodohrniphora P87
         |    |--N. arnaudi P87
         |    |--N. cognata B10
         |    |--N. curvinervis B10
         |    `--N. mexicanae B10
         `--Phalacrotophora P87
              |--P. berolinensis B04
              |--P. beuki B04
              |--P. epeirae B04
              |--P. fasciata B04
              |--P. halictorum B04
              |--P. (Omapanta) longifrons P87
              |--P. quadripunctata B04
              `--P. rufiventris B04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1–42.

[B10] Brown, B. V. 2010. Phoridae (hump-backed flies, scuttle flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 725–761. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[P87] Peterson, B. V. 1987. Phoridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 689–712. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 13 July 2021.

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