Bombini

Bombus mendax, from here.


Belongs within: Corbiculata.

The Bombini, bumble bees, are a group of robust, densely pubescent bees found in Eurasia and the Americas (and introduced elsewhere), characterised by a combination of corbiculae on the hind tibiae and hind tibial spurs (Michener 1965).

Bombini [Bombi, Bombinae]
    |--Psithyrus E01 [incl. Apathus R35]
    |    |--P. barbutellus A71
    |    |--P. campestris MS01
    |    |--P. quadricolor R35
    |    |--P. rupestris MS01
    |    `--P. vestalis MS01
    `--Bombus Latreille 1802 M65 [incl. Bremus R35, Calyptapis Cockerell 1906 E01]
         |  i. s.: B. (Bombus) PK17
         |           |--*B. (B.) terrestris (Linnaeus 1758) M65 (see below for synonymy)
         |           `--B. (B.) randeckensis PK17
         |         B. agrorum MS01 [=Bremus agrorum R35]
         |         B. arenicola [incl. B. arenicola var. baicalensis] MS01
         |         B. bimaculatus WL09
         |         B. carbonarius Menge 1856 (n. d.) E01
         |         B. cognatus MS01
         |         B. consobrinus MS01
         |         B. cryptarum HB03
         |         B. distinguendus MS01
         |         ‘Bremus’ ferviotus R35
         |         *Calyptapis’ florissantensis Cockerell 1906 E01
         |         B. fragrans MS01
         |         B. hortorum (Linnaeus 1761) M65 [=Apis hortorum M65, Bremus hortorum R35]
         |         B. hypocrita GOY07
         |           |--B. h. hypocrita GOY07
         |           `--B. h. sapporoensis GOY07
         |         B. ignitus GOY07
         |         B. impatiens PK17
         |         B. incertus MS01
         |         B. inexspectatus A71
         |         B. lapidarius HB03
         |         B. luianus CSD10
         |         B. mexicanus B04
         |         B. modestus Eversmann 1852 GE05
         |         B. ‘modestus’ Cresson 1863 nec Eversmann 1852 nec Smith 1861 GE05
         |         B. muscorum (Linnaeus 1758) E01 [=Apis muscorum E01, Bremus muscorum R35]
         |         B. ‘muscorum’ Roussy 1937 non Linnaeus 1758 E01
         |         B. nevadensis CB73
         |         B. pascuorum HB03
         |         ‘Bremus’ praetorum R35
         |         B. proavus CSD10
         |         B. pusillus Menge 1856 (n. d.) E01
         |         ‘Bremus’ rayellus R35
         |         B. ruderatus (Fabricius 1775) M65 (see below for synonymy)
         |         B. rupestris PK17
         |         B. sibiricus MS01
         |         B. subterraneus M65
         |           |--B. s. subterraneus M65
         |           `--B. s. latreillellus (Kirby 1802) [=Apis latreillella] M65
         |         B. trinominatus Dalla Torre 1890 [=B. modestus Smith 1861 non Eversmann 1852] GE05
         |         ‘Bremus’ tunicatus R35
         |         B. vetustus CSD10
         |         B. vosnesenskii H79
         |--B. mendax Gerstäcker 1869 CSD10
         `--+--B. ardens Smith 1879 CSD10
            `--B. diversus Smith 1869 CSD10

Bombus ruderatus (Fabricius 1775) M65 [=Apis ruderata M65, Bremus ruderatus R35; incl. Br. ruderatus var. harrisellus R35]

*Bombus (Bombus) terrestris (Linnaeus 1758) M65 [=Apis terrestris M65, Bremus terrestris R35; incl. Bremus terrestris var. fidens R35, Bombus terrestris var. lucorum MS01, Bo. terrestris var. patagiatus MS01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1–42.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[CB73] Carlson, C. W., & R. W. Brosemer. 1973. Amino acid compositions of cytochrome c from four hymenopteran species: evolutionary significance. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 77–83.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[GOY07] Goka, K., K. Okabe & M. Yoneda. 2007. Bumblebee commercialization has caused worldwide migration of parasitic mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 697–704. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HB03] Hong, S. G., K. S. Bae, M. Herzberg, A. Titze & M.-A. Lachance. 2003. Candida kunwiensis sp. nov., a yeast associated with flowers and bumblebees. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 367–372.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

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