Erebidae

Cotton looper moth Anomis flava, copyright Alexey Yakovlev.


Belongs within: Noctuoidea.
Contains: Sorocostia, Hypeninae, Calpinae, Catocalinae, Eublemma, Lymantriinae, Herminiinae, Hypsa, Spilosoma, Lithosiini, Arctiini, Syntomini.

The Erebidae, as recognised by Zahiri et al. (2011), are a diverse clade of noctuoid moths united by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Members of this clade have historically been divided between a number of families with many being previously included in the Noctuidae. Among subgroups previously treated as distinct families are the Arctiinae, tiger moths and related species, a diverse group of often aposematically coloured moths. Most arctiines possess a tymbal organ on the thorax that produces ultrasonic clicks; these clicks are thought to disrupt bat echolocation (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Erebidae [Arctiidae, Aventiinae, Gonopteridae, Phytometrinae, Toxocampidae, Toxocampini] ZK11
    |--Anobini ZK11
    |    |--Anoba anguliplaga ZK11
    |    `--Marcipa ZK11
    `--+--+--+--Colobochyla salicalis ZK11
       |  |  `--Hypeninae ZK11
       |  `--+--+--Oxycilla ondo ZK11
       |     |  `--Rivula [Rivulinae] ZK11
       |     |       |--R. everta Swinhoe 1901 Sw01a
       |     |       |--R. ommatopis NC91
       |     |       `--R. sericealis V09
       |     `--+--Scoliopteryx [Scoliopterygini] ZK11
       |        |    `--S. libatrix [=Gonoptera libatrix] V09
       |        `--Anomis [Anomini] ZK11
       |             |--A. flava B88
       |             |--A. fulvida WM66
       |             |--A. involuta MC13
       |             |--A. lyona G84
       |             |--A. metaxantha ZK11
       |             `--A. sabulifera P27a
       `--+--+--+--Calpinae ZK11
          |  |  `--+--+--Oxidercia toxea ZK11
          |  |     |  `--Azeta ceramina ZK11
          |  |     `--+--Panopoda [Panopodini] ZK11
          |  |        |    `--P. rufimargo ZK11
          |  |        `--Eulepidotis [Eulepidotini] ZK11
          |  |             |--E. geminata T62
          |  |             |--E. metamorpha T62
          |  |             |--E. preclara Todd 1962 T62
          |  |             `--E. rectimargo ZK11
          |  `--+--Catocalinae ZK11
          |     `--+--Lygephila ZK11
          |        |    |--L. maxima ZK11
          |        |    `--L. pastinum (Treischke 1826) JP05
          |        `--+--Scolecocampa [Scolecocampinae] ZK11
          |           |    `--S. liburna ZK11
          |           `--+--Hypenodinae ZK11
          |              |    |  i. s.: Trigonistis NC91
          |              |    |--Hypenodes humidalis ZK11
          |              |    `--+--Schrankia costaestrigalis ZK11
          |              |       `--Micronoctua [Micronoctuidae, Micronoctuinae] ZK11
          |              `--+--Saroba pustulifera ZK11
          |                 `--+--Laspeyria flexula (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) ZK11, JP05
          |                    |--+--Corgatha nitens ZK11
          |                    |  `--Phytometra ZK11
          |                    |       |--P. agnata F92
          |                    |       |--P. gamma F92
          |                    |       `--P. vividaria (Clerck 1759) JP05
          |                    `--+--+--+--Metaemene albiguttata ZK11
          |                       |  |  `--Trisateles [Trisatelini] ZK11
          |                       |  |       `--T. emortualis ZK11
          |                       |  `--+--Prolophota trigonifera ZK11
          |                       |     `--Parascotia [Boletobiinae] ZK11
          |                       |          `--P. fuliginaria (Linnaeus 1761) JP05
          |                       `--+--Araeoptera P27b [Araeopteroninae ZK11]
          |                          |    `--A. canescens P27b
          |                          `--Eublemma ZK11
          `--+--Lymantriinae ZK11
             `--+--Hypsoropha hormosa ZK11
                `--+--+--Masca abactalis ZK11
                   |  `--Pangrapta [Pangraptinae] ZK11
                   |       |--P. bicornuta ZK11
                   |       `--P. decoralis ZK11
                   `--+--+--Herminiinae ZK11
                      |  `--Aganainae [Aganaidae, Hypsidae] ZK11
                      |       |--Digama marmorea Butl. 1877 MC13, M86b [incl. D. piepersiana Snell. 1879 M86b]
                      |       |--Agape chloropyga NC91
                      |       |--Neochera NC91
                      |       |--Hypsa WM66
                      |       |--Peridroma saucia ZK11, RC94
                      |       |--Asota ZK11
                      |       |    |--A. caricae ZK11
                      |       |    |--A. heliconia ZK11
                      |       |    `--A. iodamia NC91
                      |       |--Amerila M86b
                      |       |    |--A. astreas [=Sphinx astreas] M86b
                      |       |    |--A. brachyleuca Meyrick 1886 M86b
                      |       |    |--A. rubripes ZS10
                      |       |    |--‘Chelonia’ saucia [incl. Lithosia arthusbertrand] M86b
                      |       |    `--A. serica Meyrick 1886 M86b
                      |       |--Composia fidellissima H01
                      |       `--Pericopis biformis Schaus 1901 Sc01
                      `--Arctiinae [Nyctemeridae, Nyctemerinae] ZK11
                           |  i. s.: Rhodogastria NC91
                           |           |--R. crokeri P27b
                           |           |--R. fumida Swinhoe 1901 Sw01a
                           |           `--R. roseibarba Druce 1901 D01a
                           |         Amsacta NC91
                           |         Spilosoma NC91
                           |         Ctimene synestia Meyrick 1886 M86a
                           |         Bursada M86a
                           |         Exitelica C70
                           |         Argina NC91
                           |           |--A. astrea NC91
                           |           `--A. cribraria P27b
                           |         Metacrias Meyrick 1886 PPE03, M86b
                           |           |--M. erichrysa Meyrick 1886 M86b
                           |           |--M. huttonii [=Phaos huttonii] M86b
                           |           `--M. strategica PPE03
                           |         Aloa MC13
                           |           |--A. bifrons WM66
                           |           |--A. lactinea WM66
                           |           `--A. marginata MC13
                           |         Utetheisa MC13
                           |           |--U. bella Linn. 1758 H01
                           |           |    |--U. b. bella H01
                           |           |    `--U. b. speciosa H01
                           |           |--U. lotrix NC91
                           |           |--U. pectinata NC91
                           |           |--U. pulchella WM66
                           |           `--U. pulchelloides MC13
                           |         Nyctemera NC91
                           |           |--N. amica [=Agagles amicus] M86b
                           |           |--N. annulata [=Leptosoma annulatum; incl. N. doubledayi] M86b
                           |           |--N. artemis [=Leptosoma artemis] M86a
                           |           |--N. crescens [incl. N. luctuosum] Sw01a
                           |           |--N. cribraria (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 (see below for synonymy)
                           |           |--N. onetha Swinhoe 1901 Sw01a
                           |           |--N. separata M86b
                           |           |--N. tertiana M86b
                           |           `--N. varians WM66
                           |         Euplagia quadripunctaria ZK11, DS73 [incl. Callimorpha hera DS73]
                           |           |--E. q. quadripunctaria DS73
                           |           `--E. q. lutescens DS73
                           |         Calidota strigosa Wlk. 1855 H01
                           |--Lithosiini ZK11
                           `--+--Arctiini ZK11
                              `--Syntomini ZK11

Erebidae incertae sedis:
  Episparis ZK11
  Deilemera antinorii A71
  Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata W03
  Tyria jacobeae DS73
  Agyrtidia uranophila DS73
  Nicaea longipennis DS73
  Ardices curvata P27b
  Lexis nitens P27b
  Calamidia P27b
    |--C. hirta [=Lithosia hirta] M86b
    `--C. salpinctis Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Scaptesyle monogrammaria P27b
  Asura P27b
    |--A. cervicalis M86b
    |--A. habrotis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--A. lydia [=Pitane lydia; incl. A. gaudens] M86b
  Comarchis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. aspectatella [=Oecophora aspectatella; incl. Tinea oecophorella] M86b
    |--C. chrysochoa Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. isophragma Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. jocularis (Ros. 1885) [=Mosoda jocularis] M86b
    |--C. lochaga Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. oblita [=Pitane oblita] M86b
    |--C. sparsana [=Conchylis sparsana; incl. Pallene gracilis Butl. 1877] M86b
    |--C. staurocola Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--C. tineoides [=Eutane tineoides; incl. Pitane amanda] M86b
  Stauropolia nekrutenkoi GE05
  Josiomorpha penetrata GE05
  Episcea extravagans GE05
  Crocomela luxuriosa GE05
  Emydia striata [incl. E. striata var. bipunctata] P01
  Diacrisia russula P01
  Nemeophila plantaginis P01
  Hemihylea WZ10
  Deiopeia M86b
    |--D. pulchella M86b
    `--D. syringa M86b
  Hestiarcha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*H. pyrrhopa Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Exotrocha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*E. liboria [=Noctua liboria, Lithosia liboria] M86b
  Heterallactis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*H. euchrysa Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Parelictis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*P. saleuta Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Scaeodora Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--*S. omophanes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--S. chionastis Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Cluaca M86b
    |--C. rubricosta M86b
    `--C. struthias Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Anestia Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*A. ombrophanes Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Palaexera Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*P. phyllodes Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Teulisna dasypyga [=Diastrophia dasypyga] M86b
  Tigrioides M86b
    |--T. alterna [=Setina alterna; incl. Lithosia transversa] M86b
    |--T. furcifera [=Setina furcifera; incl. S. trifurcata] M86b
    |--T. heminephes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--T. nana [=Lithosia nana] M86b
    `--T. spilarcha Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Calligenia M86b
    |--C. cyclota Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. melitaula Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. pyraula Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--C. structa [=Pallene structa] M86b
  Symmetrodes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*S. nitens [=Lithosia nitens; incl. L. remota] M86b
  Neobrocha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--N. adoxa Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--N. phaeocyma Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Sorocostia M86b
  Mosoda M86b
    |--M. anartoides Walk. 1900 M86b
    |--M. consolatrix Ros. 1885 M86b
    |--M. jucunda [=Pallene jucunda; incl. Tospitis transitana] M86b
    |--M. ophiodes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--M. sejuncta [=Pitane sejuncta] M86b
    `--M. servilis Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Hectobrocha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*H. pentacyma Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Chiriphe M86b
    |--C. catarrhoa Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. dichotoma Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. dictyota Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. monogrammaria M86b
    |--C. procrena Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--C. stenopa Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Zia tactalis [incl. Aquita horridella] M86b
  Areas M86b
    |--A. costalis [=Aloa costalis] M86b
    |--A. lactinea M86b
    `--A. marginata (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 (see below for synonymy)
  Eutane M86b
    |--E. partita M86b
    `--E. terminalis [incl. E. maculata Butl. 1877] M86b
  Phragmatobia M86b
    |--P. fuliginosa F92
    `--P. interrupta M86b
  Toxocampa metaspila WM66
  Hyphantria cunea Drury 1773 BB01
  Ecpantheria albiscripta Druce 1901 D01a
  Hyperthaema Sc01
    |--H. albipuncta Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--H. haemacta Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Neritos Sc01
    |--N. asana D01b
    |--N. blanda Druce 1901 D01b
    `--N. sanguipuncta Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Robinsonia polyplagia Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Halisidota Sc01
    |--H. arenacea Schaus 1901 Sc01
    |--H. huaco Schaus 1901 Sc01
    |--H. pallida Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--H. perdentata Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Amastus Sc01
    |--A. adela Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--A. coccinator Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Ischnocampa Sv01
    |--I. nigridorsata Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--I. nigrivena Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Turuptiana obscura Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Hyalarctia sericea Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Munonia iridescens Sc01
  Maenas Sc01
    |--M. bilinea Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--M. salamimia F92
  Antarctia fervida Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Holomelina Sc01
    |--H. cocciniceps Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--H. trigonifera Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Eucyane D01b
    |--E. excellens D01b
    `--E. hermaea Druce 1901 D01b
  Eucyrta D01b
    |--E. daga D01b
    `--E. lugens Druce 1901 D01b
  Elysus chrysellus Druce 1901 D01b
  Capotena elaina Swinhoe 1901 Sw01b
  Carea Sw01b
    |--C. nitida Sw01b
    |--C. ocyra Sw01b
    `--C. tarika Swinhoe 1901 Sw01b
  Erizada Walker 1865 [incl. Tinosoma Hmpsn. 1894] Sw01b
    `--E. semifervens (Walker 1864) (see below for synonymy) Sw01b

Areas marginata (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 [=Phalaena marginata M86b; incl. A. moorei M86b, A. roseicostis M86b]

Erizada semifervens (Walker 1864) [=Gadirtha semifervens; incl. Tinosoma hyperythrum Hmpsn. 1894, Erizada lichenaria Walker 1865] Sw01b

Nyctemera cribraria (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 [=Phalaena cribraria M86b; incl. Noctua astrea M86b, Xanthesthes guttata M86b, Argina notata M86b, Bombyx pylotis M86b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BB01] Ball, G. E., & Y. Bousquet. 2001. Carabidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 32–132. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[D01a] Druce, H. 1901a. Descriptions of some new species of Heterocera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 74–79.

[D01b] Druce, H. 1901b. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M86a] Meyrick, E. 1886a. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[M86b] Meyrick, E. 1886b. Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 687–802.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PPE03] Patrick, B., H. Patrick & E. Edwards. 2003. Tiger moths and pheromones. Weta 25: 14–17.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703-709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RC94] Rice, P. J., & J. R. Coats. 1994. Insecticidal properties of several monoterpenoids to the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae), red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and southern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 87 (5): 1172–1179.

[Sc01] Schaus, W. 1901. Descriptions of some new species of Heterocera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 265–270.

[Sw01a] Swinhoe, C. 1901a. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 463–473.

[Sw01b] Swinhoe, C. 1901b. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths (continued). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 489–501.

[T62] Todd, E. L. 1962. A new species of Eulepidotis Hübner from South America (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 269–272.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[W03] Waterhouse, B. M. 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea 10 (1): 477–485.

[WZ10] Wood, D. M., & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Tachinidae (tachinid flies, parasitic flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1343–1417. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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