Apidae

Centris analis, photographed by Stanislav Krejčík.


Belongs within: Apiformes.
Contains: Anthophorini, Osirini, Nomadinae, Melectini, Corbiculata, Xylocopinae, Eucerini.

The Apidae are a diverse group of long-tongued bees in which the clypeus is bent posteriorly lateral to the narrowed labral articulation (Engel 2001). The apids include both solitary and eusocial taxa, with the eusocial taxa all contained within the Corbiculata. A large clade including the Nomadinae, Osirini and Melectini is cleptoparasitic, laying their eggs in the brood cells of other bees.

Characters (from Engel 2001): Single subantennal suture; suture meeting lower margin of antennal socket. Facial foveae absent. Lower lateral margins of clypeus bent posteriorly on either side of labrum. Flabellum present; glossa acute; labial palpus with first two segments flattened, sheath-like, and elongate; submentum strongly V-shaped and sclerotized, submental arms articulating with cardines slightly above cardo-stipital articulations. Galeal comb absent; stipital comb and concavity present; basistiptial process elongate. Pre-episternal groove absent. Mesocoxa entirely exposed. Metabasitibial frequently present. Jugal lobe short. Strong metasomal scopa absent; scopa variously formed on metafemur and metatibia, metatibia sometimes developed into a corbicula (in non-parasitic females). Metapostnotum setose. Pygidial plate and fimbria of female typically present.

<==Apidae [Anthophoridae, Apiariae, Apinae, Apiti, Euceriti, Tetrapediini]
    |--+--Anthophorini CSD10
    |  `--+--Osirini CSD10
    |     `--+--Nomadinae CSD10
    |        `--Melectini CSD10
    `--+--Centridini CSD10
       |    |--Epicharis analis Lepeletier 1841 CSD10
       |    `--+--Corbiculata CSD10
       |       `--Centris CSD10
       |            |  i. s.: C. pallida FJ01
       |            |--+--C. analis (Fabricius 1804) CSD10
       |            |  `--C. longimana Fabricius 1804 CSD10
       |            `--+--C. dimidiata (Olivier 1789) CSD10
       |               `--+--C. hoffmanseggiae Cockerell 1897 CSD10
       |                  `--+--C. atripes Mocsáry 1899 CSD10
       |                     `--C. decolorata Lepeletier 1841 CSD10
       `--+--+--Xylocopinae CSD10
          |  `--Tetrapedia CSD10
          |      |--T. (Tetrapedia) diversipes CSD10
          |      `--T. maura Cresson 1878 CSD10
          `--+--Ctenoplectrini [Ctenoplectrinae] CSD10
             |    |--Ctenoplectrina Cockerell 1930 E01
             |    `--Ctenoplectra Kirby in Kirby & Spence 1826 E01
             |         |--*C. chalybea Smith 1858 M65
             |         |--C. albolimbata Magretti 1895 CSD10
             |         |--C. australica Cockerell 1926 M65
             |         `--C. bequaerti Cockerell 1930 CSD10
             `--+--+--Ancyloscelis CSD10
                |  `--Exomalopsini [Exomalopsinae] CSD10
                |       |--Anthophorula completa (Cockerell 1935) CSD10
                |       `--Exomalopsis CSD10
                `--+--+--Eucerini CSD10
                   |  |--Teratognathini E01
                   |  `--Ancyla CSD10
                   |       |--A. anatolica Wamcke 1979 CSD10
                   |       `--A. asiatica CSD10
                   `--+--Tapinotaspidini CSD10
                      |    |--+--Tapinotaspoides CSD10
                      |    |  `--Caenonomada CSD10
                      |    `--+--Paratetrapedia CSD10
                      |       `--Arhysoceble picta (Friese 1899) CSD10
                      `--Emphorini CSD10
                           |--Alepidosceles CSD10
                           `--+--+--Meliphilopsis CSD10
                              |  `--Diadasia bituberculata (Cresson 1878) CSD10
                              `--+--Melitoma [Melitomini] CSD10
                                 |    `--M. chilensis BM76
                                 `--+--Diadasina distincta (Holmberg 1903) CSD10
                                    `--Ptilothrix CSD10

Apidae incertae sedis:
  Pygomelissa Engel & Wappler in Wappler & Engel 2003 WE03
    `--*P. lutetia Engel & Wappler in Wappler & Engel 2003 WE03
  Podalirius Latreille 1802 L02
    |--P. acervorum [=Apis acervorum] L02
    |--P. crassipes [=Apis crassipes] L02
    |--P. hirsuta [=Andrena hirsuta] L02
    |--P. lanipes [=Apis lanipes] L02
    |--P. pilipes [=Apis pilipes] L02
    |--P. rotundata [=Apis rotundata] L02
    `--P. versicolor [=Apis versicolor] L02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207-16211.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.

[FJ01] Field, L. H., & T. H. Jarman. 2001. Mating behaviour. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 317-332. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1-362.

[WE03] Wappler, T., & M. S. Engel. 2003. The Middle Eocene bee faunas of Eckfeld and Messel, Germany (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 908-921.

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