Skull of Sivapithecus sivalensis at the British Museum of Natural History, copyright Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Hominoidea.

The Ponginae are the clade of apes more closely related to modern orangutans Pongo than to chimpanzees, gorillas or humans.

Characters (from Chaimanee et al. 2003): Enamel wrinkled; I1 very large; I3 small and peg-like; P3 low crowned with reduced heteromorphy; molar cingula absent.

<==Ponginae [Pongini]
    |  i. s.: Platodontopithecus jianghuaiensis Gu & Lin 1983 G91
    |--Ankarapithecus Ozansoy 1957 CS04, M-SA09
    |    `--A. meteai Ozansoy 1957 M-SA09, G91 [=Sivapithecus meteai G91]
    |--Lufengpithecus CS04
    |    |--L. keiyuanensis CS04
    |    `--L. lufengensis Wu 1987 CJ03 [=Ramapithecus lufengensis G91]
    |--Gigantopithecus von Koeningswald 1935 CS04, D07
    |    |--G. blacki G91
    |    `--G. giganteus [incl. G. bilaspurensis] G91
    |--Sivapithecus Pilgrim 1910 CJ03, M-SA09
    |    |--S. alpani G91
    |    |--S. darwini G91
    |    |--S. indicus M-SA09
    |    |--S. parvada KN07
    |    |--S. punjabicus G91
    |    |--S. sivalensis CJ03 [=Palaeopithecus sivalensis G91]
    |    `--S. yunnanensis G91
    `--+--Khoratpithecus Chaimanee, Suteethorn et al. 2004 CS04
       |    |--*K. pirayai Chaimanee, Suteethorn et al. 2004 CS04
       |    `--K. chiangmuanensis (Chaimanee, Jolly et al. 2003) [=Lufengpithecus chiangmuanensis] CS04
       `--Pongo Lacépède 1799 CS04, M-SA09 [incl. Hemanthropus von Koenigswald 1957 G91]
            |--P. abelii AA15 [=P. pygmaeus abelii BP87]
            |--‘Hemianthropus’ peii von Koenigswald 1957 [=Hemanthropus peii] G91
            `--P. pygmaeus SAP78

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA15] Alba, D. M., S. Almécija, D. DeMiguel, J. Fortuny, M. Pérez de los Ríos, M. Pina, J. M. Robles & S. Moyà-Solà. 2015. Miocene small-bodied ape from Eurasia sheds light on hominoid evolution. Science 350 (6260): aab2625.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[CJ03] Chaimanee, Y., D. Jolly, M. Benammi, P. Tafforeau, D. Duzer, I. Moussa & J.-J. Jaeger. 2003. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins. Nature 422: 61–65.

[CS04] Chaimanee, Y., V. Suteethorn, P. Jintasakul, C. Vidthayanon, B. Murandat & J.-J. Jaeger. 2004. A new orang-utan relative from the Late Miocene of Thailand. Nature 427: 439–441.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[KN07] Kunimatsu, Y., M. Nakatsukasa, Y. Sawada, T. Sakai, M. Hyodo, H. Hyodo, T. Itaya, H. Nakaya, H. Saegusa, A. Mazurier, M. Saneyoshi, H. Tsujikawa, A. Yamamoto & E. Mbua. 2007. A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (49): 19220–19225.

[M-SA09] Moyà-Solà, S., D. M. Alba, S. Almécija, I. Casanovas-Vilar, M. Köhler, S. De Esteban-Trivigno, J. M. Robles, J. Galindo & J. Fortuny. 2009. A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (24): 9601–9606.

[SAP78] Simons, E. L., P. Andrews & D. R. Pilbeam. 1978. Cenozoic apes. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 120–146. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

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