Trypanosoma sp. among human red blood cells, from the Centers for Disease Control.

Belongs within: Kinetoplastea.

The Trypanosomatida are a group of micro-organisms parasitic on vertebrates, some of which are known for causing serious diseases.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Eukinetoplastic with kDNA network associated with ciliary basal body; uniciliated with cilium lacking hairs and emerging from anterior pocket, or emerging laterally and attached to body; phagotrophic or osmotrophic; cytostome, when present, simple and close to ciliary pocket; exclusively parasitic.

    |  i. s.: Rhynchoidomonas AS12
    |         Angomonas deanei AS12, C-S18
    |         Strigomonas culicis AS12, C-S18
    |--Trypanosoma [Trypanosomatidae] DF03
    |    |  i. s.: T. avium RN72
    |    |         T. congolense HH09
    |    |         T. duttoni KK54
    |    |         T. equiperdum IHR03
    |    |         T. evansi P09
    |    |         T. grayi C-S18
    |    |         T. fringillinarum RN72
    |    |         T. lewisi A71
    |    |         T. rangeli C-S18
    |    |         T. vivax A71
    |    |--+--T. avium DF03
    |    |  `--T. cruzi DF03
    |    `--T. brucei DF03
    |         |--T. b. brucei PHK96
    |         |--T. b. gambiense PHK96
    |         `--T. b. rhodesiense PHK96
    `--Leishmaniinae AS12
         |  i. s.: Wallaceina AS12
         |--+--‘Leptomonas’ collosoma DF03
         |  `--+--Blastocrithidia culicis DF03
         |     `--Crithidia DF03
         |          |--C. fasciculata DF03
         |          |--C. luciliae PHK96
         |          `--C. oncopelti DF03
         `--+--+--Phytomonas serpens DF03
            |  `--Herpetomonas DF03
            |       |--H. mariadeanei DF03
            |       `--+--H. megaseliae DF03
            |          `--H. samuelpessoai DF03
            `--+--+--‘Blastocrithidia’ gerricola DF03
               |  `--Leptomonas DF03
               |       |--L. peterhoffi DF03
               |       `--L. seymouri LA03
               `--+--Endotrypanum monterogeii DF03
                  `--Leishmania DF03
                       |--L. amazonensis HH09
                       |--L. braziliensis A71
                       |--L. donovani HH09
                       |--L. infantum HH09 [=L. donovani infantum E83]
                       |--L. major HH09
                       |--L. mexicana PF99
                       |--L. tarentolae HH09
                       `--L. tropica E83

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[C-S18] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma 255: 297–357.

[DF03] Dyková, I., I. Fiala, J. Lom & J. Lukeš. 2003. Perkinsiella amoebae-like endosymbionts of Neoparamoeba spp., relatives of the kinetoplastid Ichthyobodo. European Journal of Protistology 39 (1): 37–52.

[E83] Ewald, P. W. 1983. Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 465–485.

[HH09] Hampl, V., L. Hug, J. W. Leigh, J. B. Dacks, B. F. Lang, A. G. B. Simpson & A. J. Roger. 2009. Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3859–3864.

[IHR03] Isobe, T., E. C. Holmes & G. Rudenko. 2003. The transferrin receptor genes of Trypanosoma equiperdum are less diverse in their transferrin binding site than those of the broad-host range Trypanosoma brucei. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 377–386.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3–4): 121–135.

[LA03] Longet, D., J. M. Archibald, P. J. Keeling & J. Pawlowski. 2003. Foraminifera and Cercozoa share a common origin according to RNA polymerase II phylogenies. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1735–1739.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

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