Central European boar Sus scrofa scrofa, copyright Valentin Panzirsch.

Belongs within: Suina.

The Suinae are a group of pigs including all living members of the family. They are united by elongation of the skull, complication of the cheek teeth, and the development of canine tusks (Cooke & Wilkinson 1978).

    |  i. s.: Microstonyx Pilgrim 1926 CW78
    |           `--M. major DW04
    |         Dicoryphochoerus CW78
    |           |--D. haydeni CW78
    |           |--D. robustus CW78
    |           `--D. titan CW78
    |--Babyrousa FS15
    |    |--B. togeanensis FS15
    |    `--+--B. babyrussa FS15
    |       `--B. celebensis FS15
    `--+--+--Porcula salvania FS15
       |  `--Sus Linnaeus 1758 FS15, CW78
       |       |  i. s.: S. babyrussa Linnaeus 1758 L58
       |       |         S. heureni IT07
       |       |         S. minor Depéret 1890 P04
       |       |         S. porcus Linnaeus 1758 L58
       |       |         S. riukiuanus Kuroda 1924 I92
       |       |         S. salvanius IT07
       |       |         S. strozzii ME05
       |       |         S. taivanus S66
       |       |         S. timoriensis IT07
       |       |         S. vittatus M89
       |       |--*S. scrofa Linnaeus 1758 CW78, FS15, CW78 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |    |--S. s. scrofa K92
       |       |    |--S. s. domesticus Erxleben 1777 K92, GC-BG04
       |       |    `--S. s. leucomystax Temminck 1842 M76
       |       `--+--+--+--S. bucculentus FS15
       |          |  |  `--S. celebensis FS15
       |          |  `--+--S. cebifrons FS15
       |          |     `--S. philippensis FS15
       |          `--+--+--S. ahoenobarbus FS15
       |             |  `--S. barbatus FS15
       |             `--+--S. oliveri FS15
       |                `--+--S. brachgnathus FS15
       |                   `--S. verrucosus FS15
       `--+--Potamochoerus Gray 1854 FS15, CW78
          |    |--*P. porcus (Linnaeus 1758) CW78
          |    |--P. larvatus FS15
          |    `--P. penicillatus B66
          `--+--Kolpochoerus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932 FS15, CW78 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |  i. s.: ‘Hylochoerus’ grabhami Hopwood 1929 (n. d.) [=Mesochoerus grabhami] CW78
             |    |         K. major (Hopwood 1934) (n. d.) FS15, CW78 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |         K. phacochoeroides (Thomas 1884) [=Sus phacochoeroides] CW78
             |    |--K. afarensis Cooke 1978 CW78
             |    `--+--K. limnetes (Hopwood 1926) (see below for synonymy) CW78
             |       |--+--K. paiceae (Broom 1931) (see below for synonymy) CW78
             |       |  `--K. olduvaiensis (Leakey 1942) CW78
             |       `--Hylochoerus Thomas 1904 CW78
             |            |--*H. meinertzhageni Thomas 1904 CW78
             |            `--H. antiquus Leakey 1958 CW78
             `--+--Potamochoeroides Dale 1948 CW78
                |    `--P. shawi (Dale 1948) [=Pronotochoerus shawi; incl. *P. hypsodon Dale 1948] CW78
                `--+--Phacochoerus Cuvier 1817 (see below for synonymy) CW78
                   |    |  i. s.: P. kabuae Whitworth 1965 CW78
                   |    |--P. modestus (van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932) (see below for synonymy) CW78
                   |    `--+--*P. aethiopicus (Pallas 1767) (see below for synonymy) CW78
                   |       `--P. africanus (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy) CW78
                   |            |--P. a. africanus CW78
                   |            `--P. a. helmei Dreyer & Lyle 1931 (see below for synonymy) CW78
                   `--Metridiochoerus Hopwood 1926 FS15, CW78 [incl. Pronotochoerus Leakey 1943 CW78]
                        |  i. s.: M. compactus (Leakey 1958) D07, CW78 [=Notochoerus compactus CW78]
                        |         M. modestus D07
                        |         ‘Notochoerus’ serengetensis Dietrich 1942 CW78
                        |--M. jacksoni (Leakey 1943) [=*Pronotochoerus jacksoni; incl. M. pygmaeus Leakey 1958] CW78
                        |--M. nyanzae (Leakey 1958) [=Pronotochoerus nyanzae] CW78
                        `--+--*M. andrewsi Hopwood 1926 (see below for synonymy) CW78
                           `--Stylochoerus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932 (see below for synonymy) CW78
                                `--S. compactus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932 (see below for synonymy) CW78

Inorganic: Babirousa babyrussa minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87
           Sus scrofa minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Kolpochoerus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932 FS15, CW78 [incl. Ectopotamochoerus Leakey 1965 CW78, Mesochoerus Shaw & Cooke 1941 CW78, Omochoerus Arambourg 1942 CW78, Promesochoerus Leakey 1965 CW78]

Kolpochoerus limnetes (Hopwood 1926) [=Sus limnetes, Mesochoerus limnetes; incl. *Ectopotamochoerus dubius Leakey 1965, M. heseloni Leakey 1943, Potamochoerus intermedius Leakey 1965, Omochoerus maroccanus Ennouchi 1954, *Promesochoerus mukiri Leakey 1965, *O. pachygnathus Arambourg 1943, Sus waylandi] CW78

Kolpochoerus major (Hopwood 1934) (n. d.) FS15, CW78 [=Koiropotamus majus CW78, Potamochoerus majus CW78]

Kolpochoerus paiceae (Broom 1931) [=Notochoerus paiceae; incl. Mesochoerus lategani Singer & Keen 1955, *Kolpochoerus sinuosus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932] CW78

*Metridiochoerus andrewsi Hopwood 1926 [incl. Notochoerus dietrichi Hopwood 1934, N. hopwoodi Leakey 1958, N. meadowsi Broom 1928, Kolpochoerus meadowsi, Phacochoerus meadowsi, Tapinochoerus meadowsi] CW78

Phacochoerus Cuvier 1817 [incl. Potamochoerops Ewer 1956, Tapinochoerus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932; Phacochoerinae] CW78

*Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas 1767) [=Aper aethiopicus; incl. P. dreyeri, P. meiringi, P. venteri Dreyer & Lyle 1931] CW78

Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin 1788) [=Sus africanus; incl. P. barbarus Pomel 1897, P. congolensis van Straelen 1924, P. mauritanicus Pomel 1897, P. stenobunus Pia 1930] CW78

Phacochoerus africanus helmei Dreyer & Lyle 1931 [incl. P. laticolumnatus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932] CW78

Phacochoerus modestus (van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932) [=*Tapinochoerus modestus; incl. Ph. antiquus Broom 1948, *Potamochoerops antiquus, Notochoerus broomi Shaw & Cooke 1941, Tapinochoerus minutus Leakey 1958] CW78

Stylochoerus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932 [incl. Afrochoerus Leakey 1942, Orthostonyx Leakey 1958] CW78

Stylochoerus compactus van Hoepen & van Hoepen 1932 [incl. Phacochoerus altidens, Orthostonyx brachyops Leakey 1958, P. complectidens, Synaptochoerus hieroglyphicus, *Afrochoerus nicoli Leakey 1942] CW78

*Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 CW78, FS15, CW78 [incl. S. algeriensis Pomel 1896 CW78, S. barbarus Pomel 1896 (preoc.) CW78]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B66] Blyth, E. 1866. A note on African buffalos. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 371–373.

[CW78] Cooke, H. B. S., & A. F. Wilkinson. 1978. Suidae and Tayassuidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 435–482. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[GC-BG04] Gentry, A., J. Clutton-Brock & C. P. Groves. 2004. The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 645–651.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K92] Krylov, M. V. 1992. The origin of heteroxeny in Sporozoa. Parazitologiya 26 (5): 361–368.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Appunti intorno ai mammiferi dell’isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 238–245.

[ME05] Moullé, P.-E., A. Echassoux, F. Lacombat, E. Desclaux & S. Bailon. 2005. L’environnement animal des premiers habitants de l’Europe méditerranéenne: les grands mammifères contemporains de l’homme du Vallonnet, données taxonomiques et biostratigraphiques pour la deuxième moitie du Pléistocène inférieur. BAR International Series 1364: 105–113.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notice of recent additions to the Society’s menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 418–419.

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