Skull of Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, copyright James St John.

Belongs within: Anthropoidea.
Contains: Hominoidea, Cercopithecidae.

The Catarrhini are a clade of primates including the Old World monkeys and apes. Living members of this clade have downward-facing nostrils and two pairs each of upper and lower premolars.

Catarrhini [Catarrhina, Propliopithecidae, Propliopithecoidea]
    |  i. s.: Kamoyapithecus hamiltoni SS13
    |--Oligopithecidae MA05
    |    |--Catopithecus Simons 1989 SS13, G91
    |    |    `--C. browni SS13
    |    |--Oligopithecus Simons 1962 G91
    |    |    |--*O. savagei Simons 1962 SAP78
    |    |    `--O. rogeri NG13
    |    `--Talahpithecus Jaeger, Beard et al. 2010 JB10
    |         `--*T. parvus Jaeger, Beard et al. 2010 JB10
    `--+--Saadanius hijazensis AA15, SS13
       |--Propliopithecus Schlosser 1910 [incl. Aeolopithecus Simons 1965, Moeripithecus Schlosser 1911] SAP78
       |    |  i. s.: P. ankelae [=P. ankeli] G91
       |    |--P. markgrafi (Schlosser 1911) G91, SAP78 [=Moeripithecus markgrafi SP09]
       |    `--+--*P. haeckeli Schlosser 1911 SAP78, SP09, SAP78
       |       `--+--P. chirobates (Simons 1965) SP09, SAP78 [=*Aeolopithecus chirobates SAP78, G91]
       |          `--Aegyptopithecus Simons 1965 NG13, SAP78
       |               `--*A. zeuxis Simons 1962 SAP78
       `--+--+--Pliopithecidae [Pliopithecoidea] G91
          |  |    |--+--Dionysopithecus [Dionysopithecidae] AA15
          |  |    |  |    `--D. shuangouensis Li 1978 MA05
          |  |    |  `--+--Barberapithecus huerzeleri AA15
          |  |    |     `--Crouzeliinae G91
          |  |    |          |--Crouzelia G91
          |  |    |          |--Plesiopliopithecus G91
          |  |    |          `--Anapithecus hernyaki AA15
          |  |    `--Pliopithecinae G91
          |  |         |--Lomorupithecus harrisoni SS13
          |  |         `--Pliopithecus Lartet 1849 SS13, D07
          |  |              |--P. antiquus SS13
          |  |              |--P. canmatensis AA15
          |  |              |--P. piveteaui D07
          |  |              |--P. platydon D07
          |  |              |--P. vindobonensis CC77
          |  |              `--P. zhanxiangi D07
          |  `--+--Hominoidea SS13
          |     `--+--+--Laccopithecus robustus SS13
          |        |  `--Epipliopithecus vindobonensis AA15, SS13
          |        `--Dendropithecidae SS13
          |             |--Limnopithecus Hopwood 1933 SS13, SAP78
          |             |    |--*L. legetet Hopwood 1933 [=Pliopithecus (Limnopithecus) legetet] SAP78
          |             |    `--L. evansi MacInnes 1943 SS13, SAP78
          |             `--+--Dendropithecus Andrews & Simons 1977 SS13, SAP78
          |                |    `--*D. macinnesi (Clark & Leakey 1950) (see below for synonymy) SAP78
          |                `--+--Simiolus enjiessi SS13
          |                   `--Micropithecus clarki SS13
          `--Cercopithecoidea [Victoriapithecidae] SS13
               |  i. s.: Zaltanpithecus simonsi SS13
               |--Nsungwepithecus Stevens, Seiffert et al. 2013 SS13
               |    `--*N. gunnelli Stevens, Seiffert et al. 2013 SS13
               `--+--Prohylobates Fourtau 1918 SS13, SD78
                  |    `--P. tandyi Fourtau 1918 [incl. Dryopithecus mogharensis Fourtau 1918] SD78
                  |--Noropithecus SS13
                  |    |--N. bulukensis SS13
                  |    |--N. fleaglei SS13
                  |    `--N. kipsaramanensis SS13
                  `--+--Cercopithecidae AA15
                     `--Victoriapithecus von Koenigswald 1969 SS13, SD78
                          |--V. leakeyi von Koenigswald 1969 SD78
                          `--V. macinnesi von Koenigswald 1969 SD78

*Dendropithecus macinnesi (Clark & Leakey 1950) [=Limnopithecus macinnesi, Pliopithecus (Limnopithecus) macinnesi] SAP78

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA15] Alba, D. M., S. Almécija, D. DeMiguel, J. Fortuny, M. Pérez de los Ríos, M. Pina, J. M. Robles & S. Moyà-Solà. 2015. Miocene small-bodied ape from Eurasia sheds light on hominoid evolution. Science 350 (6260): aab2625.

[CC77] Ciochon, R. L., & R. S. Corruccini. 1977. The phenetic position of Pliopithecus and its phylogenetic relationship to the Hominoidea. Systematic Zoology 26 (3): 290–299.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[JB10] Jaeger, J.-J., K. C. Beard, Y. Chaimanee, M. Salem, M. Benammi, O. Hlal, P. Coster, A. A. Bilal, P. Duringer, M. Schuster, X. Valentin, B. Marandat, L. Marivaux, E. Métais, O. Hammuda & M. Brunet. 2010. Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids. Nature 467: 1095–1098.

[MA05] Marivaux, L., P.-O. Antoine, S. R. H. Baqri, M. Benammi, Y. Chaimanee, J.-Y. Crochet, D. de Franceschi, N. Iqbal, J.-J. Jaeger, G. Métais, G. Roohi & J.-L. Welcomme. 2005. Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (24): 8436–8441.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[SP09] Seiffert, E. R., J. M. G. Perry, E. L. Simons & D. M. Boyer. 2009. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates. Nature 461: 1118–1121.

[SAP78] Simons, E. L., P. Andrews & D. R. Pilbeam. 1978. Cenozoic apes. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 120–146. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[SD78] Simons, E. L., & E. Delson. 1978. Cercopithecidae and Parapithecidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 100–119. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[SS13] Stevens, N. J., E. R. Seiffert, P. M. O'Connor, E. M. Roberts, M. D. Schmitz, C. Krause, E. Gorscak, S. Ngasala, T. L. Hieronymus & J. Temu. 2013. Palaeontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes. Nature 497: 611–614.

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