Reconstruction of Brachyodus aequatorialis, copyright WillemSvdMerwe.

Belongs within: Artiodactyla.
Contains: Protoceratidae, Tragulidae, Pecora.

The Ruminantiamorpha are a clade of artiodactyls including all species closer to modern ruminants than to other living artiodactyls. Living ruminants are characterised by the possession of a multi-chambered stomach in which food is broken down by bacteria living in a large fermentation chamber, the rumen.

See also: Horns and guts.

Synapomorphies (from Janis & Scott 1988): Tarsus with fused cuboid and navicular; upper incisors reduced or lost; incisiform lower canines.

<==Ruminantiamorpha SOG09
    |  i. s.: Bothriogenys Schmidt 1913 SOG09, B78
    |           |--*B. fraasi (Schmidt 1913) [=Brachyodus (*Bothriogenys) fraasi] B78
    |           |--B. africanus (Andrews 1899) B78
    |           |--B. andrewsi Schmidt 1913 B78
    |           |--B. gorringei (Andrews & Beadnell 1902) B78
    |           |--B. parvus (Andrews 1906) B78
    |           `--B. rugulosus Schmidt 1913 B78
    |--+--Anthracotherium BLB05
    |  `--+--Brachyodus BLB05
    |     |    |--B. aequatorialis MacInnes 1951 BLB05, B78 [=Masritherium aequitorialis B78]
    |     |    |--B. andrewsi Schmidt 1913 S68
    |     |    |--B. gorringei (Andrews & Beadnell 1902) S68
    |     |    |--B. parvulus (Andrews 1906) S68
    |     |    `--B. rugulosus Schmidt 1913 S68
    |     `--Elomeryx Marsh 1894 SOG09, D07
    |          |--E. armatus BLB05
    |          |--E. crispus OB13
    |          `--E. woodi D07
    `--+--+--Libycosaurus petrocchii Bonarelli 1947 SOG09, B78 [=Merycopotamus petrocchii B78]
       |  `--+--Leptoreodon TC07
       |     `--+--Heteromeryx TC07
       |        `--Protoceratidae SOG09
       `--Ruminantia [Tragulina] SOG09
            |  i. s.: Russa equina M89
            |         Cervulus M89
            |           |--C. crinifrons TD89
            |           |--C. feae Thomas & Doria 1889 TD89
            |           |--C. moschatus TD89
            |           |--C. muntjac M89
            |           |--C. reevesii D59
            |           `--C. vaginalis D59
            |         Indomeryx JS88
            |         Pseudoceras JS88
            |         Pseudomeryx JS88
            |         Archaeomeryx Matthew & Granger 1925 D07 [Archaeomerycidae HD03]
            |           `--A. optatus D07
            |         Hexameryx White 1941 D07
            |           |--H. elmori D07
            |           `--H. simpsoni D07
            |--Tragulidae JS88
            `--+--Bachitherium [Bachitheriidae] JS88
               `--+--Pecora JS88
                  `--Lophiomerycidae JS88
                       |--Lophiomeryx JS88
                       |--Cryptomeryx JS88
                       `--Iberomeryx JS88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B78] Black, C. C. 1978. Anthracotheriidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 423–434. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[BLB05] Boisserie, J.-R., F. Lihoreau & M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (5): 1537–1541.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[HD03] Hassanin, A., & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. Systematic Biology 52 (2): 206–228.

[JS88] Janis, C. M., & K. M. Scott. 1988. The phylogeny of the Ruminantia (Artiodactyla, Mammalia). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 273–282. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Appunti intorno ai mammiferi dell’isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 238–245.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[S68] Simons, E. L. 1968. African Oligocene mammals: introduction, history of study, and faunal succession. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, Bulletin 28: 1–21.

[SOG09] Spaulding, M., M. A. O'Leary & J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: increased taxon sampling alters interpretation of key fossils and character evolution. PLoS One 4 (9): e7062.

[TC07] Thewissen, J. G. M., L. N. Cooper, M. T. Clementz, S. Bajpai & B. N. Tiwari. 2007. Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India. Nature 450: 1190–1194.

[TD89] Thomas, O., & G. Doria. 1889. Diagnosi di una nuova specie del genere Cervulus raccolta da L. Fea nel Tenasserim. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 92.

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