External and sectional views of Miliammina earlandi, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964).

Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Nubeculariidae, Fischerinidae, Rzehakinidae, Miliolinellinae, Miliolinae, Tubinellinae, Quinqueloculininae.

The Miliolida are a group of Foraminifera with a test that is most commonly calcareous and porcelaneous in appearance, though a minority of genera have an agglutinated or siliceous test (Pawlowski et al. 2013).

Characters (from Pawlowski et al. 2013): Test bi- or multi-chambered, chambers tubular or elongate, some with complex internal structures adapted to host algal endosymbionts; wall generally imperforate, calcareous of high magnesium calcite with randomly oriented crystals refracting light in all directions and resulting in a porcelaneous appearance of the test; may be agglutinated or siliceous.

<==Miliolida (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Nubeculariidae C40
    |  `--Fischerinidae C40
    `--+--Rzehakinidae PHT13
       `--Miliolidae (see below for synonymy) C40
            |  i. s.: Praemurgella Luperto Sinni, Martín-Chivelet & Giménez 2000 LSM-CG00
            |           `--*P. valenciana Luperto Sinni, Martín-Chivelet & Giménez 2000 LSM-CG00
            |         Murgella Luperto Sinni 1965 LSM-CG00
            |           `--M. lata Luperto Sinni 1965 LSM-CG00
            |         Scandonea De Castro 1971 LSM-CG00
            |           |--S. mediterranea LSM-CG00
            |           `--S. samnitica LSM-CG00
            |         Miliammina Heron-Allen & Earland 1930 G86
            |           |--M. oblonga G86 (see below for synonymy)
            |           |--M. earlandi LT64
            |           |--M. echigoensis Asano & Inomata in Asano 1952 H03
            |           |--M. herzensteini LT64
            |           `--M. lata C40
            |--Miliolinellinae S-VC91
            |--Miliolinae LT64
            |--Tubinellinae LT64
            `--Quinqueloculininae S-VC91

Miliolida incertae sedis:
  Barkerinidae [Barkerininae] LT64
    |--Barkerina Frizzell & Schwartz 1950 LT64
    |    `--*B. barkerensis Frizzell & Schwartz 1950 LT64
    |--Coxites Smout 1956 LT64
    |    `--*C. zubairensis Smout 1956 LT64
    |--Rabanitina Smout 1956 LT64
    |    `--*R. basraensis Smout 1956 LT64
    `--Nezzazata Omara 1956 [incl. Begia Smout 1956] LT64
         |--*N. simplex Omara 1956 LT64
         `--N. gyra (Smout 1956) [=*Begia gyra] LT64
  Miliammellus [Silicoloculinida] PHT13

Miliammina oblonga G86 [incl. Miliolina oblonga var. arenacea Chapman 1900 G86, *Miliammmina oblonga var. arenacea LT64, Miliammina selon Birstein & Ljovoushkin 1965 G86]

Miliolida [Alveolinidea, Cornuspiridea, Cornuspiroidea, Flexostili, Imperforida, Miliolacea, Miliolidaceae, Miliolidea, Miliolina, Orbitolitacea, Porcellanea]

Miliolidae [Armiliolidia, Fabularina, Hauerinae, Hauerinidae, Hauerinina, Milioletta, Miliolidina, Miliolinidae, Miliolitidae, Multiloculidae, Plicatilia, Tubularina]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Foraminiferida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 17–20. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LSM-CG00] Luperto Sinni, E., J. Martín-Chivelet & R. Giménez. 2000. Praemurgella valenciana nov. gen. et sp. (Foraminifera) in the Sierra de Utiel Formation (Coniacian–Santonian) of the Prebetic domain (SE Spain). Geobios 32 (2): 145–151.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS