Tubinella funalis, from Brady (1884).

Belongs within: Miliolida.

The Tubinellinae are a group of miliolid Foraminifera known from the Middle Eocene to the present, characterised by a test that is uniserial at maturity (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Early milioline stage reduced; later portion uniserial, with rudimentary septa; aperture formed by open end of final chamber.

<==Tubinellinae LT64
    |--Pavoninoides Bermúdez 1949 LT64
    |    `--*P. panamensis Bermúdez 1949 LT64
    |--Poroarticulina Cushman 1944 LT64
    |    `--*P. glabra Cushman 1944 LT64
    |--Parrina Cushman 1931 (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |    |--*P. bradyi (Millett 1898) [=Nubecularia bradyi, *Silvestria bradyi] LT64
    |    `--P. kegeli (Tinoco 1955) [=*Erichsenella kegeli] LT64
    |--Articulina d’Orbigny 1826 [incl. Ceratospirulina Ehrenberg 1858] LT64
    |    |--*A. nitida d’Orbigny 1826 LT64
    |    |--A. sagra C40
    |    `--*Ceratospirulina’ spratti Ehrenberg 1858 LT64
    `--Tubinella Rhumbler 1906 [=Artubinum Thumbler 1913; incl. Tubinellina Wiesner 1931] LT64
         |--*T. inornata (Brady 1884) [=Articulina funalis var. inornata, *Artubinum inornatum] LT64
         |--T. funalis (Brady 1884) C40, LT64 [=Articulina funalis LT64, *Tubinellina funalis LT64]
         `--T. perforata C40

Parrina Cushman 1931 [=Silvestria Schubert 1921 nec Verhoeff 1895 nec Brian 1902; incl. Erichsenella Tinoco 1955] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

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