Scanning electron micrographs and microphotographs of Bulimina marginata, copyright Isabel Mendes.

Belongs within: Buliminacea.

The Buliminidae are a group of Foraminifera known from the Palaeocene to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test high trochospiral, with not more than three chambers to whorl, may reduce to biserial; aperture a loop in apertural face, with platelike internal tooth connecting successive chambers, or aperture may be indistinct and represented only by pores in terminal chamber face.

    |--Pavonininae [Reussellinae, Reussiinae] LT64a
    |    |  i. s.: Tubulogenerina Cushman 1929 LT64b
    |    |           |--*T. tubulifera (Parker & Jones 1863) [=Textularia (Bigenerina) tubulifera] LT64b
    |    |           |--T. mooraboolensis C40
    |    |           |--‘Bifarina’ reticulosa LT64b
    |    |           `--‘Bifarina’ zanzibarensis LT64b
    |    |         Acostina Bermúdez 1949 LT64b
    |    |           `--*A. piramidale (Acosta 1940) [=Chrysalogonium piramidale] LT64b
    |    |         Fijiella Loeblich & Tappan 1962 LT64b
    |    |           |--*F. simplex (Cushman 1929) [=Trimosina simplex] LT64b
    |    |           `--F. perforata (Cushman 1924) [=Trimosina perforata] LT62
    |    |         Valvobifarina Hofker 1951 LT64b
    |    |           |--*V. mackinnoni (Millett 1900) [=Bifarina mackinnoni; incl. B. mackinnoni var. robusta] LT64b
    |    |           `--V. elongata [=Bifarina elongata] LT64b
    |    |--Reussella Galloway 1933 C40 [=Reussia Schwager 1877 non McCoy 1854 LT64b]
    |    |    |--*R. spinulosa (Reuss 1850) [=Verneuilina spinulosa, *Reussia spinulosa] LT64b
    |    |    |--R. armata S05
    |    |    `--R. simplex S05
    |    |--+--Mimosina Millett 1900 C40
    |    |  |    `--*M. histrix Millett 1900 LT64b
    |    |  `--Trimosina Cushman 1927 C40
    |    |       |--*T. milletti Cushman 1927 LT64b
    |    |       `--T. spinulosa [=Mimosina spinulosa] C40
    |    `--+--Chrysalidinella Schubert 1907 C40 [incl. Chrysalidinoides Uchio 1952 LT64b]
    |       |    |--*C. dimorpha (Brady 1881) [=Chrysalidina dimorpha] LT64b
    |       |    `--C. pacifica (Uchio 1952) [=*Chrysalidinoides pacificus] LT64b
    |       `--Pavonina d’Orbigny 1826 C40 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--*P. flabelliformis d’Orbigny 1826 [=*Valvopavonina flabelliformis] LT64b
    |            `--P. ryukyuensis (Cushman & Hanzawa 1936) [=*Bifarinella ryukyuensis] LT64b
    `--Bulimininae C40
         |--Virgulopsis Finlay 1939 LT64b
         |    `--*V. pustulata Finlay 1939 LT64b
         |--Praeglobobulimina Hofker 1951 [incl. Protoglobobulimina Hofker 1951] LT64b
         |    |--*P. spinescens (Brady 1884) [=Bulimina pyrula var. spinescens] LT64b
         |    |--P. pupoides (d’Orbigny 1846) H03 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--P. pyrula (d’Orbigny 1846) [=Bulimina pyrula] H03
         |--Globobulimina Cushman 1927 [incl. Desinobulimina Cushman & Parker 1940] LT64b
         |    |--*G. pacifica Cushman 1927 C40
         |    |--G. affinis JW99
         |    |--G. auriculata (Bailey 1851) [=Bulimina auriculata, B. (*Desinobulimina) auriculata] LT64b
         |    |    |--G. a. auriculata LT64b
         |    |    `--G. a. gullmarensis LT64b
         |    |--G. perversa (Cushman 1921) [=Bulimina pyrula var. perversa] H03
         |    |--G. spinensis JW99
         |    `--G. turgida LT64b
         `--Bulimina d’Orbigny 1826 (see below for synonymy) C40
              |--*B. marginata d’Orbigny 1826 C40
              |--B. aculeata C40
              |--B. alazanensis JW99
              |--B. buchiana LT64a
              |--*Pleurites’ cretae Ehrenberg 1854 (n. d.) LT64b
              |--*Cucurbitina’ cruciata Costa 1856 (n. d.) LT64b
              |--B. elegans C40
              |--B. elongata M62
              |--B. exilis JW99
              |--B. gibba AA05
              |--B. inflata LT64a
              |--B. mexicana JW99
              |--B. miolaevis H90
              |--B. obtusa C40
              |--B. pupula B49
              |--B. spinulosa H04
              `--B. striata d’Orbigny 1826 H03

Bulimina d’Orbigny 1826 [incl. Cucurbitina Costa 1856 non Alexander 1833 (n. d.), Pleurites Ehrenberg 1854] C40

Pavonina d’Orbigny 1826 C40 [=Valvopavonina Hofker 1951 LT64b; incl. Bifarinella Cushman & Hanzawa 1936 LT64b]

Praeglobobulimina pupoides (d’Orbigny 1846) H03 [=Bulimina pupoides H03, *Protoglobobulimina pupoides LT64b; incl. B. kamadaensis Matsunaga 1963 H03]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[H90] Hayward, B. W. 1990. Use of foraminiferal data in analysis of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 20: 71–83.

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159–186.

[LT62] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1962. Six new generic names in the Mycetozoida (Trichiidae) and Foraminiferida (Fischerinidae, Buliminidae, Caucasinidae, and Pleurostomellidae), and a redescription of Loxostomum (Loxostomidae, new family). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 107–114.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.

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