Reophax guttifer, copyright Onno Groß.

Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Orbitolinidae, Pavonitinidae, Dicyclinidae, Robertinida, Rotaliida, Ataxophragmiidae, Textulariidae, Trochamminidae, Lituolidae.

The Globothalamea is a major group of multi-chambered Foraminifera in which the chambers are primarily globular or crescent-shaped. Basal lineages, corresponding to the order 'Textulariida', have an agglutinated test; other subgroups have a test composed of calcite or aragonite (Pawlowski et al. 2013).

Characters (from Pawlowski et al. 2013): Test multi-chambered, typically trochospirally enrolled but may be triserial, biserial or uniserial; chambers globular or crescent-shaped in early stage; wall agglutinated or calcareous. SSU rRNA gene length averaging 3500 nt (3000–4000 nt), GC content of about 40%; conserved motive present in variable region 41f of SSU rDNA.

<==Globothalamea [Lituolacea, Lituolicae, Lituolina, Textulariida] PHT13
    |  i. s.: Nouria Heron-Allen & Earland 1914 C40 [Nouriidae LT64, Nouriinae]
    |           `--*N. polymorphinoides Heron-Allen & Earland 1914 C40
    |         Carterina Brady 1884 [Carterinacea, Carterinida, Carterinidae] AS12
    |           `--*C. spiculotesta (Carter 1877) [=Rotalia spiculotesta] C40
    |         Orbitolinidae C40
    |         Leptohalysis scotti PHT13
    |         Pavonitinidae LT64
    |         Dicyclinidae LT64
    |--Hormosinidae [Aschemonellidae, Hormosinida, Reophacida, Reophacidae, Silicinidae] PHT13
    |    |--Cribratininae LT64
    |    |    |--Cribratina Sample 1932 LT64
    |    |    |    `--*C. texana (Conrad in Emory 1857) LT64 [=Nodosaria texana LT64, Haplostiche texana C40]
    |    |    `--Haplostiche Reuss 1861 [=Arhaplostichoum Rhumbler 1913] LT64
    |    |         `--*H. foedissima (Reuss 1860) [=Dentalina foedissima, *Arhaplostichoum foetidissimum] LT64
    |    `--Hormosininae [Arreophaxnia, Proteonininae, Reophacidinae, Reophacinae, Silicininae] LT64
    |         |--Sulcophax Rhumbler in Wiesner 1931 LT64
    |         |    `--*S. claviformis Rhumbler in Wiesner 1931 LT64
    |         |--Auerinella Frenguelli 1953 LT64
    |         |    `--*A. fuegiae Frenguelli 1953 LT64
    |         |--Nodosinum Hofker 1930 LT64
    |         |    `--*N. gaussicum (Rhumbler 1913) (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |         |--Polychasmina Loeblich & Tappan 1946 LT64
    |         |    `--*P. pawpawensis Loeblich & Tappan 1946 LT64
    |         |--Protoschista Eimer & Fickert 1899 LT64
    |         |    `--*P. findens (Parker 1870) [=Lituola findens] LT64
    |         |--Psammolingulina Silvestri 1904 LT64
    |         |    `--*P. papillosa (Neugeboren 1856) [=Lingulina papillosa] LT64
    |         |--Hormosina Brady 1879 [=Arhomosum Rhumbler 1913] LT64
    |         |    |--*H. globulifera Brady 1879 [=*Arhomosum globuliferum] LT64
    |         |    `--H. kijastachensis BL79
    |         |--Thomasinella Shlumberger in Thomas 1893 [incl. Bireophax Bolli 1961] LT64
    |         |    |--*T. punica Schlumberger 1893 LT64
    |         |    `--T. guaricoensis (Bolli 1961) [=*Bireophax guaricoensis] LT64
    |         `--Reophax Montfort 1808 (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |              |--*R. scorpiurus Montfort 1808 (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |              |--R. angusta (Schubert 1902) [=*Ammofrondicularia angusta] LT64
    |              |--R. asper C40
    |              |--R. delicatula (Bermúdez & Key 1952) [=*Ginesina delicatula] LT64
    |              |--R. dentaliniformis Brady 1881 [=*Nodulina dentaliniformis] LT64
    |              |--‘Proteonina’ difflugiformis C40
    |              |--*Reophaxopsis’ elegans de Folin 1887 LT64
    |              |--R. excentricus Cushman 1910 H03
    |              |--*Proteonina’ fusiformis Williamson 1858 [=*Arproteonum fusiforme] LT64
    |              |--R. guttifer LT64
    |              |--‘Silicina’ limitata C40
    |              |--‘Involutina’ polymorpha Terquem 1864 [=*Arsilicoum polymorphum, *Silicina polymorpha] LT64
    |              `--R. texana C40
    `--+--+--Robertinida C40
       |  `--Rotaliida PH03
       `--+--+--Ataxophragmiidae PHT13
          |  `--+--Textulariidae PHT13
          |     `--+--Trochamminidae PHT13
          |        `--Eggerelloides scaber PHT13
          `--+--Lituolidae PH03
             `--Haplophragmiidae G-B87
                  |--Telatynella Gawor-Biedowa 1987 [Telatynellinae] G-B87
                  |    |--*T. telatynensis Gawor-Biedowa 1987 G-B87
                  |    `--T. clavata Gawor-Biedowa 1987 G-B87
                  `--Haplophragmium Reuss 1860 C40, G-B87 [incl. Bulbobaculites Maync 1952 LT64; Haplophragmiinae]
                       |--*H. aequale (Roemer 1841) [=Spirolina aequalis] LT64
                       |--H. lituolinoideum C40
                       |--H. lueckei (Cushman & Hedberg 1941) [=Ammobaculites lueckei, *Bulbobaculites lueckei] LT64
                       |--H. scitulum Brady 1881 [=Alveolophragmium scitulum] H03
                       `--H. taylorensis C40

*Nodosinum gaussicum (Rhumbler 1913) [=Nodosinella gaussicum, Arnodosinum pygaussicum Rhumbler 1913, Nodosinella gaussica] LT64

Reophax Montfort 1808 [=Arreophaxum Rhumbler 1913, Lituolina Goës 1881, Reophagus Agassiz 1844, Rheophax Eimer & Fickert 1899; incl. Ammofrondicularia Schubert 1902, Arproteonum Rhumbler 1913, Arsilicoum Rhumbler 1913, Ginesina Bermúdez & Key 1952, Nodulina Rhumbler 1895, Proteonina Williamson 1858, Reophaxopsis de Folin 1887, Silicina Bornemann 1874] LT64

*Reophax scorpiurus Montfort 1808 [=*Arreophaxum scorpiurus, *Lituolina scorpiurus, *Reophagus scorpiurus, *Rheophax scorpiurus] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683–717.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G-B87] Gawor-Biedowa, E. 1987. New benthic foraminifers from the Late Cretaceous of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 32 (1–2): 49–72.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene–Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

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