Heterohelix striata, from here.

Belongs within: Rotaliida.

The Heterohelicidae are a group of planktonic Foraminifera known from the Middle Jurassic to the Oligocene (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Early stage trochospiral, planispiral, biserial or triserial, lateral may show serial reductions or proliferations; aperture large, simple and interiomarginal, or terminal in uniserial forms, without internal columellar processes.

    |--Guembelitriinae LT64
    |    |--Guembelitria Cushman 1933 C40
    |    |    `--*G. cretacea Cushman 1933 C40
    |    |--Guembelitriella Tappan 1940 LT64
    |    |    `--*G. graysonensis Tappan 1940 LT64
    |    |--Woodringina Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64
    |    |    `--*W. claytonensis Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64
    |    `--Gubkinella Suleymanov 1955 [incl. Conoglobigerina Morozova in Morozova & Moskalenko 1961] LT64
    |         |--*G. asiatica Suleymanov 1955 LT64
    |         |--G. dagestanica (Morozova in Morozova & Moskalenko 1961) (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |         `--‘Globigerina’ graysonensis LT64
    `--Heterohelicinae [Guembelininae] LT64
         |  i. s.: Chiloguembelina Loeblich & Tappan 1956 LT64
         |           |--*C. midwayensis (Cushman 1940) [=Guembelina midwayensis] LT64
         |           |--C. crinita FJ05
         |           `--C. wilcoxensis (Cushman & Ponton 1932) [=Guembelina wilcoxensis] MO81
         |         Gublerina Kikoïne 1948 LT64
         |           `--G. ornatissima (Cushman & Church 1929) (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |         Sigalia Reiss 1957 LT64
         |           `--*S. deflaensis (Sigal 1952) LT64, M08b, LT64 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Pseudoguembelina Brönnimann & Brown 1953 LT64
         |           `--*P. excolata (Cushman 1926) [=Guembelina excolata] LT64
         |         Racemiguembelina Montanaro Gallitelli 1957 LT64
         |           `--*R. fructicosa (Egger 1899) [=Guembelina fructicosa] LT64
         |--Bifarina Parker & Jones 1872 C40 [incl. Rectoguembelina Cushman 1932 LT64, Tubitextularia Šulc 1929 LT64]
         |    |--*B. saxipara (Ehrenberg 1854) [=Dimorphina saxipara] C40
         |    |--B. bohemica [=Pseudotextularia bohemica, *Tubitextularia bohemica] LT64
         |    |--B. fimbriata C40
         |    |--B. nodosaria White 1929 [incl. *Rectoguembelina cretacea Cushman 1932] LT64
         |    `--‘Rectoguembelina’ texana C40
         |--Heterohelix Ehrenberg 1843 C40 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*H. americana (Ehrenberg 1844) [=Spiroplecta americana; incl. H. navarroensis] LT64
         |    |--H. cenomanica BL79
         |    |--H. complanata M08b
         |    |--H. dentata Stenestad 1968 FM03
         |    |--H. globulosa (Ehrenberg 1840) [=Textularia globulosa, *Guembelina globulosa] LT64
         |    |--H. moremani I02
         |    |--H. pulchra M08b
         |    |--‘Guembelina’ spinifera C40
         |    `--H. striata M08b [=Guembelina striata C40]
         `--+--Planoglobulina Cushman 1927 C40 [incl. Ventilabrella Cushman 1928 LT64]
            |    |--*P. acervulinoides (Egger 1899) [=Guembelina acervulinoides] LT6b
            |    |--‘Ventilabrella’ carseyi C40
            |    `--*Ventilabrella’ eggeri Cushman 1928 C40
            `--Pseudotextularia Rzehak 1891 C40, LT64 (see below for synonymy)
                 |--*P. elegans (Rzehak 1891) [=Cuneolina elegans] LT64
                 |--P. fruticosa C40
                 |--‘Guembelina’ plummerae Loetterle 1937 [=*Bronnimannella plummerae] LT64
                 `--P. varians Rzehak 1886 C40

Gubkinella dagestanica (Morozova in Morozova & Moskalenko 1961) [=Globigerina (*Conoglobigerina) dagestanica] LT64

Gublerina ornatissima (Cushman & Church 1929) [=Ventilabrella ornatissima; incl. *G. cuvillieri Kikoïne 1948] LT64

Heterohelix Ehrenberg 1843 C40 [=Spiroplecta Ehrenberg 1844 LT64; incl. Guembelina Egger 1899 non Kuntze 1895 LT64]

Pseudotextularia Rzehak 1891 C40, LT64 [incl. Bronnibrownia Montanaro Gallitelli 1955 (n. n.) LT64, Bronnimannella Montanaro Gallitelli 1956 LT64]

*Sigalia deflaensis (Sigal 1952) LT64, M08a, LT64 [=Guembelina (Ventilabrella) deflaensis LT64, Gublerina deflaensis LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683–717.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FJ05] Friedman, M., & G. D. Johnson. 2005. A new species of Mene (Perciformes: Menidae) from the Paleocene of South America, with notes on paleoenvironment and a brief review of menid fishes. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (4): 770–783.

[FM03] Friedrich, O., & K. J. S. Meier. 2003. Stable isotope indication for the cyst formation depth of Campanian/Maastrichtian calcareous dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 375–380.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian–Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MO81] Mancini, E. A., & G. E. Oliver. 1981. Planktic foraminifers from the Tuscahoma Sand (upper Paleocene) of southwest Alabama. Micropaleontology 27 (2): 204–225.

[M08a] McMillan, I. K. 2008a. Aragonitic-walled benthic foraminifera (Epistomina) in the Cretaceous 'mudbelt' off southern Africa, and postmortem cross-shelf transport of tests. African Natural History 4: 17–24.

[M08b] McMillan, I. K. 2008b. Reappraisal of foraminiferal assemblages of the Santonia-Campanian Mzamba Formation type section, and their correlation with the stratigraphic succession of the KwaZulu Basin. African Natural History 4: 25–34.

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