Scanning electron micrographs and microphotographs of Bulimina striatula, copyright Isabel Mendes.

Belongs within: Buliminacea.

The Bolivinitidae are a group of primarily biserial Foraminifera known from the Upper Triassic to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test biserial at least in young stage, aperture comma-shaped, parallel to compression of test, basal or terminal, with internal tooth plate.

<==Bolivinitidae [Bolivinitinae] LT64a
    |--+--Bolivinita Cushman 1927 C40
    |  |    |--*B. quadrilatera (Schwager 1866) [=Textilaria quadrilatera] LT64b
    |  |    `--B. planata C40
    |  `--Bolivinoides Cushman 1927 C40
    |       |--*B. draco (Marsson 1878) [=Bolivina draco] LT64b
    |       |--B. decorata C40
    |       |--B. giganteus G-B87
    |       |--B. miliaris G-B87
    |       |--B. rhomboidalis C40
    |       `--B. sidestrandensis G-B87
    `--+--Rectobolivina Cushman 1927 C40 [incl. Geminaricta Cushman 1936 LT64b]
       |    |--*R. bifrons (Brady 1881) [=Sagrina bifrons] LT64b
       |    |--R. hungarica [=Bifarina hungarica] LT64b
       |    |--R. raphana [=Uvigerina (Sagrina) raphanus, Siphogenerina raphanus] LT64b
       |    |--R. tombigbeensis [=Bifarina tombigbeensis] LT64b
       |    |--R. vickburgensis [=Bifarina vicksburgensis] LT64b
       |    `--R. virgata (Cushman 1929) [=Bolivinella virgata, *Geminaricta virgata] LT64b
       `--Bolivina d’Orbigny 1839 C40 (see below for synonymy)
            |--*B. plicata d’Orbigny 1839 C40
            |--B. afra (Reyment 1959) [=*Afrobolivina afra] LT64b
            |--B. alata H04
            |--B. anastomosa B49
            |--B. bassensis LJ98
            |--B. convallaria H04
            |--B. decussata LT64a
            |--B. dilitata AA05
            |--B. durrandii H04
            |--B. finlayi H90
            |--B. hantkeniana C40
            |--B. incrassata G-B87
            |--B. lapsus B49
            |--*Proroporus’ lingua Ehrenberg 1844 LT64b
            |--B. pacifica Cushman & McCulloch 1942 [=B. acerosa var. pacifica] H03
            |--*Clidostomum’ polystigma Ehrenberg 1845 LT64b
            |--B. quadrilatera S05
            |--B. robusta Brady 1881 H03
            |--B. spathulata PH03
            |--B. striatula JW99
            |--B. subaenariensis LT64a
            |--B. subangularis C40
            `--B. subspinescens LT64a

Bolivinitidae incertae sedis:
  Brizalina Costa 1856 LT64a, C40
    |--*B. aenariensis Costa 1856 LT64b
    |--B. alata JW99
    |--B. pseudopunctata LT64b
    `--B. vadescens LT64b
  Gabonella de Klasz, Marie & Meijer 1960 LT64b
    `--*G. elongata de Klasz & Meijer 1960 LT64b
  Grimsdaleinella Bolli 1959 LT64b
    `--*G. spinosa Bolli 1959 LT64b
  Loxostomoides Reiss 1957 LT64b
    `--*L. applinae (Plummer 1927) [=Bolivina applini] LT64b
  Tappanina Montanaro Gallitelli LT64b
    `--*T. selmensis (Cushman 1933) [=Bolivinita selmensis] LT64b
  Altistoma de Klasz & Rérat 1962 LT64b
    `--*A. scalaris de Klasz & Rérat 1962 LT64b
  Laterostomella de Klasz & Rérat 1962 LT64b
    `--*L. guembeliniformis de Klasz & Rérat 1962 LT64b
  Unicosiphonia Cushman 1935 LT64b
    `--*U. crenulata Cushman 1935 LT64b
  Grammostomum Ehrenberg 1839 LT64b
    |--*G. tenue Ehrenberg 1839 LT64b
    `--G. macilentum Ehrenberg 1854 G-B87

Bolivina d’Orbigny 1839 C40 [incl. Afrobolivina Reyment 1959 LT64b, Clidostomum Ehrenberg 1845 C40, Proroporus Ehrenberg 1844 C40]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G-B87] Gawor-Biedowa, E. 1987. New benthic foraminifers from the Late Cretaceous of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 32 (1–2): 49–72.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene–Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[H90] Hayward, B. W. 1990. Use of foraminiferal data in analysis of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 20: 71–83.

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159–186.

[LJ98] Li, Q., N. P. James, B. McGowran, Y. Bone & J. Cann. 1998. Synergetic influence of water masses and Kangaroo Island barrier on foraminiferal distribution, Lincoln and Lacepede shelves, South Australia: a synthesis. Alcheringa 22 (2): 153–176.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.

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