Equatorial section of Nummulites laevigatus, copyright Missourian.

Belongs within: Rotaliida.

The Nummulitidae are a group of mostly planispiral Foraminifera with numerous median chambers known from the Upper Cretaceous to the present day. In members of the subfamily Nummulitinae, the median chambers are simple, whereas the Cycloclypeinae have the median chambers further subdivided into chamberlets (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test normally planispiral, rarely with annular ephebic chambers; slightly asymmetrical to bilaterally symmetrical; involute or evolute; median chambers numerous, simple, or subdivided into chamberlets; complex canal system consisting of septal, marginal and vertical canals; aperture typically an arched slit at base of septa.

<==Nummulitidae [Camerinidae, Camerininae] LT64a
    |--Cycloclypeinae [Cycloclypidae] LT64b
    |    |--Spiroclypeus Douvillé 1905 LT64b
    |    |    |--*S. orbitoideus Douvillé 1905 C40
    |    |    `--S. tidoenganensis LT64b
    |    |--Heterostegina d’Orbigny 1826 [incl. Grzybowskia Bieda 1950, Heterosteginella Silvestri 1937 (n. n.)] LT64b
    |    |    |--*H. depressa d’Orbigny 1826 C40
    |    |    |--H. antillea LT64b
    |    |    `--*Grzybowskia’ multifida Bieda 1950 LT64b
    |    `--Cycloclypeus Carpenter 1856 [incl. Heteroclypeus Schubert 1906 non Cotteau 1891] LT64b
    |         |  i. s.: ‘Heterostegina’ cycloclypeus Silvestri 1905 [=*Heteroclypeus cycloclypeus] LT64b
    |         |         C. guembelianus C40
    |         |--C. (Cycloclypeus) LT64b
    |         |    |--*C. (C.) mammilatus Carpenter 1856 LT64b
    |         |    `--C. (C.) carpenteri C40
    |         |--C. (Katacycloclypeus Tan 1932) LT64b
    |         |    `--C. (*K.) annulatus Martin 1880 LT64b
    |         `--C. (Radiocycloclypeus Tan 1932) LT64b
    |              `--C. (*R.) stellatus Tan 1932 LT64b
    `--Nummulitinae LT64b
         |--Biplanispira Umbgrove 1937 [=Heterospira Umbgrove 1936 non Koken 1896] LT64b
         |    `--*B. mirabilis (Umbgrove 1937) [=*Heterospira mirabilis] LT64b
         |--Miscellanea Pfender 1935 LT64b
         |    `--*M. miscella (d’Archiac & Haime 1854) [=Nummulites miscella] LT64b
         |--Sulcoperculina Thalmann 1939 LT64b
         |    `--*S. dickersoni (Palmer 1934) LT64b (see below for synonymy)
         |--Pellatispira Boussac 1906 [incl. Vacuolispira Tan 1936] LT64b
         |    |--P. madaraszi (Hantken 1876) [=Nummulites madaraszi; incl. *P. douvillei Boussac 1906] LT64b
         |    `--P. inflata Umbgrove 1928 [=*Vacuolispira inflata] LT64b
         `--Nummulites Lamarck 1801 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--*N. laevigatus (Bruguière 1792) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--‘Operculina’ ammonea Leymerie 1846 [=*Frilla ammonea] LT64b
              |--‘Nautilus’ ammonoides Gronovius 1781 LT64b (see below for synonymy)
              |--‘Operculina’ bartschi C40
              |--N. beaumonti G92
              |--‘Camerina’ budensis C40
              |--N. chawneri (Palmer 1934) [=Camerina chawneri, *Paraspiroclypeus chawneri] LT64b
              |--N. complanata Lamarck 1804 [=*Discospora complanata, Paronia complanata] LT64b
              |--N. ‘complanatus’ (Defrance 1822) non Lamarck 1804 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--‘Amphistegina’ cumingii Carpenter 1860 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--N. curvispira G92
              |--‘Assilina’ discoidalis d’Orbigny 1826 C40
              |--N. discorbina G92
              |--‘Camerina’ elegans C40
              |--*Eoassilina’ elliptica Singh 1957 LT64b
              |--N. exponens (de Sowerby in Sykes 1840) [=Nummularia exponens, *Planocamerinoides exponens] LT64b
              |--N. fichteli G92
              |--*Phacites’ fossilis Blumenbach 1799 LT64b
              |--N. gizehensis G92
              |--‘Operculina’ granulosa d’Archiac 1847 C40, RB03 [=Assilina granulosa RB03]
              |--‘Nautilus’ lenticularis Fichtel & Moll 1798 [=*Guembelia lenticularis] LT64b
              |--*Lycophris lenticularis’ de Montfort 1808 non Nautilus lenticularis Fichtel & Moll 1798 LT64b
              |--N. nuttalli Daview 1927 [=*Ranikothalia nuttalli] LT64b
              |--N. orbiculatus H04
              |--N. planulatus O75
              |--‘Nummulina’ pristina Brady 1874 [=*Palaeonummulites pristinus] LT64b
              |--N. pulchellus G92
              |--‘Assilina’ spinosa Davies & Pinfold 1937 RB03
              |--N. spira de Roissy 1805 [=*Assilina spira] LT64b
              |--N. striatoreticulata LT64b
              |--N. tchihatcheffi d’Archiac & Haime 1853 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--‘Operculina (*Nummulitoides)’ tessieri Abrard 1956 LT64b
              |--‘Camerina’ tuberculata Bruguière 1792 [=*Laharpia tuberculata] LT64b
              |--‘Assilina’ undata RB03
              |--N. venosus PH03
              |--‘Operculina’ victoriensis Q72
              |--N. wilcoxi Heilprin 1883 LT64b [=Operculina wilcoxi C40, *Operculinoides wilcoxi LT64b]
              `--+--N. crusafonti C-PR70
                 `--+--N. biedai C-PR70
                    `--N. puigsecensis C-PR70

‘Amphistegina’ cumingii Carpenter 1860 [=*Operculinella cumingii, *Pseudonummulites cumingii, *Verbeekia cumingii] LT64b

‘Nautilus’ ammonoides Gronovius 1781 LT64b [=*Neooperculinoides ammonoides LT64b, Operculina ammonoides LT64a]

Nummulites Lamarck 1801 (nom. cons.) [=Bruguieria Prever 1902, Camerina Brugière 1792, Cumerina (l. c.), Nummularia Sowerby & Sowerby 1826, Nummulina d’Orbigny 1826, Nummulita Fleming 1828; incl. Assilina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839, Discospira Morris in Mantell 1850, Discospora (l. c.), Egeon Montfort 1808, Eoassilina Singh 1957, Frilla de Gregorio 1894, Guembelia Prever 1902, Hantkenia Prever 1902 non Munier-Chalmas in Fischer 1885, Helicites de Blainville 1824, Laharpia Prever 1902, Lycophris de Montfort 1808, Monetulites Ehrenberg 1855, Neooperculinoides Golev 1961, Nummulitoides Abrard 1956, Operculina d’Orbigny 1826, Operculinella Yabe 1908, Operculinoides Hanzawa 1935, Palaeonummulites Schubert 1908, Paraspiroclypeus Hanzawa 1937, Paronaea Prever 1902, Paronia Prever in Chelussi 1903 non Diamare 1900, Phacites Blumenbach 1799, Planocamerinoides Cole 1957, Pseudonummulites Silvestri 1937, Ranikothalia CAudri 1944, Verbeekia Silvestri 1908 non Fritsch 1877] LT64b

Nummulites ‘complanatus’ (Defrance 1822) non Lamarck 1804 [=Lenticulites complanatus, *Operculina complanata] LT64b

*Nummulites laevigatus (Bruguière 1792) [=*Camerina laevigata, *Nummularia laevigata, *Nummulina laevigata, *Nummulita laevigata] LT64b

Nummulites tchihatcheffi d’Archiac & Haime 1853 [=*Hantkenia tchihatcheffi, *Paronaea tchihatcheffi, *Paronia tchihatcheffi] LT64b

*Sulcoperculina dickersoni (Palmer 1934) LT64b [=Camerina dickersoni C40, Operculina (*Sulcoperculina) dickersoni C40]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C-PR70] Crusafont-Pairó, M., & S. Reguant. 1970. The nomenclature of intermediate forms. Systematic Zoology 19 (3): 254–257.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: Stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[O75] Owen, R. 1875. On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam cliffs, near Cairo. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 31: 100–105.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[RB03] Rage, J.-C., S. Bajpai, J. G. M. Thewissen & B. N. Tiwari. 2003. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas 25 (4): 695–716.

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