Astrammina rara, from micro*scope.

Belongs within: Harosa.
Contains: Morozovella, Komokiacea, Hemisphaerammininae, Hyperamminidae, Allogromiidae, Lagynidae, Lagenida, Fusulinida, Tubothalamea, Bathysiphon, Saccamminidae, Xenophyophorea, Globothalamea.

The Foraminifera are a diverse group of aquatic, mostly marine, amoeboid organisms with granular cytoplasm forming slender anastomosing pseudopodia. Most Foraminifera construct some form of resistant test, and as a result they have an extensive fossil record. There are, however, some basal forms such as Reticulomyxa filosa that lack a test. If present, the test may be composed of foreign particles (such as sand grains) glued together with a cement, or it may be secreted directly by the foram itself. Classifications of forams have been heavily influenced by whether the test is agglutinated or secreted, and whether it is divided into multiple, discrete chambers, but it has become clear as our understanding of foram evolution has improved that both these features evolved on multiple occasions (Pawlowski et al. 2013). Multi-chambered tests are found within the Lagenida, Fusulinida, Tubothalamea and Globothalamea. Calcareous tests have also arisen independently within the Lagenida, Tubothalamea and Globothalamea.

Basal, unilocular forams may have a membranous or pseudochitinous test, or one composed of agglutinated sand grains and/or other foreign particles, and have been divided respectively between the Lagynacea and Ammodiscacea on the basis of this feature (Loeblich & Tappan 1964a). Once again, however, the different conditions are not phylogenetically distinct and the classification of many basal forams remains uncertain. Various basal forams may be free-living or attached to the substrate, and the test may be dominated by a single central chamber or elongate and/or branching.

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964a, as Foraminiferida + Granuloreticulosia): Cytoplasm minutely granular; pseudopodia delicate and reticulate. Protoplasmic body usually protected by test composed of one or more interconnected chambers; wall may be imperforate, finely or coarsely perforate, and may be chitinous, or composed of agglutinated particles or secreted material (rarely silica or aragonite, more commonly calcite), may have canal system of varying complexity; commonly with one or more large openings or apertures in addition to smaller wall perforations which may be present; pseudopodia protruding from apertures and perforations. Reproduction characterised by alternation of sexual and asexual generations, though one generation may be secondarily repressed; gametes commonly flagellate with two or three flagella, more rarely amoeboid.

Foraminifera (see below for synonymy)
    |--Astrammina Rhumbler in Wiesner 1931 PH03, LT64a [incl. Armorella Heron-Allen & Earland 1932 LT64a]
    |    |--*A. rara Rhumbler in Wiesner 1931 LT64a
    |    |--A. limicola G96
    |    |--A. sphaerica (Heron-Allen & Earland 1932) [=*Armorella sphaerica] LT64a
    |    `--A. triangularis PH03
    `--+--Allogromiidae PHT13
       `--+--+--Cribrothalammina alba PHT13
          |  `--Reticulomyxa Nauss 1949 PHT13, AS12 [Athalamea]
          |       `--R. filosa PH03
          `--+--+--Lagynidae PHT13
             |  `--+--Vellaria PHT13
             |     `--Psammophaga simplora PHT13, PH03
             `--+--+--+--Lagenida PHT13
                |  |  `--Fusulinida GAR03
                |  `--+--Tubothalamea PHT13
                |     `--+--Bathysiphon PHT13
                |        `--Micrometula Nyholm 1952 PHT13, LT64a
                |             `--*M. hyalostriata Nyholm 1952 LT64a
                `--+--+--Cylindrogullmia alba PH03
                   |  `--+--+--Toxisarcon synsuicidica PH03
                   |     |  `--+--+--Gloiogullmia PH03
                   |     |     |  `--Saccamminidae PH03
                   |     |     `--Rhabdammina Sars in Carpenter 1869 PH03, LT64a (see below for synonymy)
                   |     |          |--*R. abyssorum Sars in Carpenter 1869 [=*Arrhabdamum abyssorum] LT64a
                   |     |          |--R. irregularis C40
                   |     |          `--R. linearis Brady 1879 (see below for synonymy) LT64a
                   |     `--+--+--Xenophyophorea PHT13
                   |        |  `--Shinkaiya lindsayi PHT13
                   |        `--Rhizamminidae [Arrhizamnia, Rhizammininae, Testulosiphoninae] PH03
                   |             |--Marsipella Norman 1878 [=Armarsipellum Rhumbler 1913] LT64a
                   |             |    `--*M. elongata Norman 1878 [=*Armarsipellum elongatum] LT64a
                   |             `--Rhizammina Brady 1879 PHT13, LT64a (see below for synonymy)
                   |                  |--*R. algaeformis Brady 1879 [=*Arrhizammum algaeforme] LT64a
                   |                  |--R. globigerinifera Hofker 1930 [=*Testulorhiza globigerinifera] LT64a
                   |                  `--R. indivisa Brady 1884 [=*Testulosiphon indivisum] LT64a
                   `--Globothalamea PHT13

Foraminifera incertae sedis:
  Neoendothyra PE02
  Spheroidinellopsis seminulina KS02
  Lingulogavelinella Malapris 1965 BL79
    `--L. albiensis RC02
  Archaealveolina reicheli HS02
  Haynesina germanica LA03
  Radicula Christiansen 1958 LT64a
    `--*R. limosa Christiansen 1958 LT64a
  Globospirillina Antonova 1964 BL79
    `--G. clara BL79
  Mormosina kijastschensis BL79
  Arborammina G96
  Ellesmerella Mamet & Roux in Mamet et al. 1987 VH01
  Orobias Eichwald 1860 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*O. aequalis Eichwald 1860 LT64b
  Consobrinella consobrina CM01
  Nodosarchaediscus CM01
    |--N. demaneti CM01
    `--N. saleei CM01
  Omphalotis minima CM01
  Schizocladus [Schizocladea] C-S03
  Planocassidulina H03
    |--P. norcrossi (Cushman 1933) (see below for synonymy) H03
    |--P. sublimbata (Asano & Nakamura 1937) [=Cassidulina sublimbata] H03
    `--P. yabei (Asano & Nakamura 1937) [=Cassidulina yabei] H03
  Loxoendothyra parakosvensis E03
  Palaeospiroplectammina parva E03
  Radiosphaera basilica E03
  Archaeoglobigerina FM03
    |--A. australis Huber 1990 FM03
    `--A. mateola Huber 1990 FM03
  *Paraglobivalvulina mira K04
  Dagmarita chanakchiensis K04
  Morozovella MO81
  Vanhoeffenella Rhumbler 1905 [=Arvanhoeffenum Rhumbler 1913] LT64a
    `--*V. gaussi Rhumbler 1905 [=*Arvanhoeffenum gaussi] LT64a
  ‘Paralagena’ Sabirov 1986 non Dall 1904 MSV00
  Septatounayella rauserae ZP86
  Eodiscus guangdongensis ZP86
  Shouguania annectena ZP86
  Rosita fornicata G-B87
  Praeorbulina curva H90
  Neolenticulina peregrina JW99
  Rutherfordoides tenuis JW99
  ‘Nautilus’ umbilicatus Linnaeus 1758 S64
  Cinibides thiara B49
  Dicarinella M08
    |--D. asymmetrica (see below for synonymy) M08
    |--D. concavata M08
    `--D. primitiva M08
  Radotruncana calcarata M08
  Contusotruncana fornicata M08
  Spiroplectinella semicomplanata M08
  Marginula breoni F71
  Schizamminidae LT64a
    |--Jullienella Schlumberger 1890 LT64a
    |    `--*J. foetida Schlumberger 1890 LT64a
    `--Schizammina Heron-Allen & Earland 1929 (see below for synonymy) LT64a
         |--*S. labyrinthica Heron-Allen & Earland 1929
         `--S. wedmoriensis (Chapman 1895) (see below for synonymy) LT64a
  Astrorhiza Sandahl 1858 (see below for synonymy) LT64a
    |--*A. limnicola Sandahl 1858 [=*Arastrorhizum limnicola] LT64a
    |--*Astrodiscus’ arenaceus Schulze 1875 LT64a
    |--A. arenaria C40
    |--*Haeckelina’ gigantea Bessels 1875 LT64a
    |--A. granulosa C40
    `--‘Ammodiscus’ lindahli Carpenter & Jeffreys 1870 (see below for synonymy) LT64a
  Komokiacea TH77
  Eoforschia moelleri R79
  Orbulinoides beckmanni P79
  Adherentina Spandel 1909 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*A. rhenana Spandel 1909 LT64b
  Aeolides de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*A. squammatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Arthrocena Modeer 1791 (n. d.) LT64b
  Aspidodexia Ehrenberg 1872 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*A. lineolata Ehrenberg 1872 LT64b
  ‘Auriculina’ Costa 1856 nec Grateloup 1838 nec Gray 1847 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*A. crenata Costa 1856 LT64b
  ‘Buliminopsis’ Rzehak 1895 non Heude 1890 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*B. conulus Rzehak 1895 LT64b
  Calatharia Zalessky 1926 LT64b
    `--*C. perforata Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  Cameroconus Meunier 1888 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. marmoris Meunier 1888 LT64b
  ‘Canopus’ de Montfort 1808 non Fabricius 1803 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. fabeolatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  ‘Cantharus’ de Montfort 1808 non Röding 1798 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. calceolatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Canthropes de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) [=Cantharipes Agassiz 1846, Canthropus Pallas in Oken 1815] LT64b
    `--*C. galet de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Cepinula Schafhäutl 1851 (n. d.) LT64b
  Cerataria Zalessky 1926 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. pulchella Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  Chelibs de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) [=Celibs Sherborn 1893] LT64b
    `--*C. gradatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Cidarollus de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. plicatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Cimelidium Ehrenberg 1858 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. homeri (Ehrenberg 1858) [=Guttulina homeri] LT64b
  Clypeocyclina Silvestri 1908 (n. d.) LT64b
  Colpopleura Ehrenberg 1844 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. ocellata (Ehrenberg 1838) [=Rotalia ocellata] LT64b
  Cortalus de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. pagodus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Craterularia Rhumbler 1911 (n. d.) LT64b
  Crustula Allix in Lecointre & Allix 1913 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. complanata Allix in Lecointre & Allix 1913 LT64b
  Cyclopavonina Silvestri 1937 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. cyclica Silvestri 1937 LT64b
  Cylindria de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*C. minuta de Gregorio 1930 LT64b
  Dexiopora Ehrenberg 1861 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*D. megapora Ehrenberg 1861 LT64b
  Dorbignyaea Deshayes 1830 (n. d.) LT64b
  ‘Dujardinia’ Gray 1858 non Quatrefages 1844 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*D. mediterranea Gray 1858 LT64b
  Elliptina Harting 1852 (n. d.) LT64b
    |--E. inflata LT64b
    `--E. truncata LT64b
  Epistominites Zalessky 1926 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*E. formosulus Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  Glandiolus de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*G. gradatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
  Hedbergina Brönnimann & brown 1956 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*H. seminolensis (Harlton 1927) [=Globigerina seminolensis] LT64b
  Hemistegina Kaufmann 1867 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*H. rotula Kaufmann 1867 LT64b
  Hemisterea Ehrenberg 1872 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*H. nautilus Ehrenberg 1872 LT64b
  Hemisticta Ehrenberg 1872 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*H. amplificata Ehrenberg 1872 LT64b
  ‘Heterostomum’ Ehrenberg 1854 non Diesing 1850 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*H. cyclostomum Ehrenberg 1854 LT64b
  Lagenopsis de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*L. maliarda de Gregorio 1930 LT64b
  Lekithiammina de Folin 1887 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*L. aculeata de Folin 1887 LT64b
  ‘Lepista’ Zalessky 1926 non Wallengren 1863 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*L. ornata Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  ‘Lobularia’ Costa 1839 non Lamarck 1816 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*L. vesiculosa Costa 1839 LT64b
  Lyrina Zborzewski 1834 LT64b
    `--*L. fischeri Zborzewski 1834 LT64b
  ‘Mesopora’ Ehrenberg 1854 non Wesmael 1852 LT64b
    `--*M. chloris Ehrenberg 1854 LT64b
  Metarotaliella Grell 1962 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*M. parva Grell 1962 LT64b
  Mirfa de Gregorio 1890 LT64b
    `--*M. subtetraedra de Gregorio 1890 LT64b
  Mirga de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*M. permiana (de Gregorio 1930) [=Orbulina (*Mirga) permiana] LT64b
  Molnaria Zalessky 1926 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*M. spinulata Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  ‘Monocystis’ Ehrenberg 1854 non Stein 1848 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*M. arcella (Ehrenberg 1854) [=Miliola (*Monocystis) arcella] Lt64b
  Nummulitella Dorren 1948 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*N. polystylata Dorren 1948 LT64b
  Oncobotrys Ehrenberg 1856 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*O. buccinum Ehrenberg 1856 LT64b
  Ozawaina Lee 1927 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*O. antiquior (Rouillier & Vosinsky 1849) LT64b (see below for synonymy)
  Orthocerina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 (n. d.) LT64b
    |--*O. quadrilatera (d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839) [=Nodosaria (*Orthocerina) quadrilatera] LT64b
    |--O. clavulus [=Nodosaria (Orthocerina) clavulus] LT64b
    `--O. murchisoni LT64b
  Otostomum Ehrenberg 1872 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*O. strophoconus Ehrenberg 1872 LT64b
  ‘Pectinaria’ Zalessky 1926 non Lamarck 1818 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*P. costata Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  Physomphalus Ehrenberg 1856 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*P. porosus Ehrenberg 1856 LT64b
  Pleurostomina Costa 1862 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*P. bimucronata Costa 1862 LT64b
  Pleurotrema Ehrenberg 1840 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*P. calcarina Ehrenberg 1840 LT64b
  Pseudastrorhizula Wetzel 1940 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*P. eisenacki Wetzel 1940 LT64b
  Pteroptyx Ehrenberg 1873 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*P. vespertilio Ehrenberg 1873 LT64b
  ‘Renulina’ Blake 1876 nec Lamarck 1804 nec de Blainville 1825 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*R. sorbyana Blake 1876 LT64b
  Rhabdella d’Archiac & Haime 1853 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*R. malcolmi d’Archiac & Haime 1853 LT64b
  Rhynchoplecta Ehrenberg 1854 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*R. punctata Ehrenberg 1854 LT64b
  Rotalites Lamarck 1801 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*R. tuberculosa Lamarck 1801 LT64b
  Semseya Franzenau 1893 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*S. lamellata Franzenau 1863 LT64b
  Siderospira Ehrenberg 1845 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*S. indica (Ehrenberg 1845) [=Siderolina indica] LT64b
  Spiroplectina Schubert 1902 (n. d.) LT64b
  Spiropleurites Ehrenberg 1854 (n. d.) LT64b
  Synspira Ehrenberg 1854 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*S. triquetra Ehrenberg 1854 LT64b
  Trioxeia de Folin 1888 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*T. edwardsi de Folin 1888 LT64b
  Upsonella Moore 1959 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*U. typus Moore 1959 LT64b
  Volutaria Zalessky 1926 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*V. potoniei Zalessky 1926 LT64b
  Volvotextularia Termier & Termier 1950 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*V. polymorpha Termier & Termier 1950 LT64b
  Parredicta porifera LJ98
  0--Hemisphaerammininae PH03
  `--Notodendrodes antarctikos PH03
  Hyperamminidae C40

Inorganic: Astrorhiza cretacea Franke 1928 H75

‘Ammodiscus’ lindahli Carpenter & Jeffreys 1870 [incl. *Arenistella agglutinans Fischer in de Folin & Périer 1875] LT64a

Astrorhiza Sandahl 1858 [=Arastrorhizum Rhumbler 1913; incl. Arenistella Fischer in de Folin & Périer 1875, Astrodiscus Schulze 1875 non Ludwig 1866, Haeckelina Bessels 1875] LT64a

Dicarinella asymmetrica [incl. Globotruncana (Globotruncana) ventricosa carinata, G. fundiconulosa, G. lobata] M08

Foraminifera [Allogromidiaceae, Allogromiida, Allogromiidea, Allogromiidia, Allogromiina, Allogromioidea, Ammoasconidae, Ammodinetta, Ammodiscacea, Ammodiscida, Arastrorhiznia, Archimonothalamia, Arenacea, Arenacidae, Arforaminifera, Arreticularia, Arrhabdamidia, Arrhabdamnia, Ascoforaminifera, Asiphoidea, Astrorhizicae, Astrorhizida, Astrorhizidaceae, Astrorhizidae, Astrorhizidea, Astrorhizina, Astrorhizinae, Ataxophragmiida, Botellinidae, Dendrophryida, Dendrophryidae, Foraminiferae, Foraminiferiae, Foraminiferida, Haplophragmiacea, Lagynacea, Lagynidea, Lituolida, Lituolidaceae, Lituolidea, Metammida, Microcometides, Monosomatia, Monostegua, Monothalamia, Perforata, Polysomatia, Polythalamea, Polythalamiis, Protammida, Psammatostichostegia, Reticulariida, Rhabdamminae, Rhabdamminidae, Rhabdamminina, Rhabdammininae, Saccorhizidae, Serpuleidae, Siphonoforaminifera, Textulariacea, Textulariaceae, Textularida, Textularidae, Textularidea, Textularidia, Textulariidea, Textulariina, Thalamia, Thalamophora, Tubulata]

*Ozawaina antiquior (Rouillier & Vosinsky 1849) LT64b [=Nummulina antiquior C40, Fusulinella (*Ozawaina) antiquior LT64b, Orobias antiquior C40]

Planocassidulina norcrossi (Cushman 1933) [=Cassidulina norcrossi; incl. C. kasiwazakiensis Husezima & Maruhasi 1944, C. nakamurai Uchio 1951] H03

Rhabdammina Sars in Carpenter 1869 PH03, LT64a [=Arrhabdammum Rhumbler 1913 LT64a; incl. Oculosiphon Avnimelech 1952 LT64a, Rhabdammina Eimer & Fickert 1899 non Sars in Carpenter 1869 LT64a]

Rhabdammina linearis Brady 1879 [=*Oculosiphon linearis, *Rhabdammina (sensu Eimer & Fickert) linearis] LT64a

Rhizammina Brady 1879 PHT13, LT64a [=Arrhizammum Rhumbler 1913 LT64as; incl. Testulorhiza Avnimelech 1952 LT64a, Testulosiphon Avnimelech 1952 LT64a]

*Schackoina cenomana (Schacko 1897) [=Siderolina cenomana, Hantkenina (*Schackoina) cenomana] LT64b

Schizammina Heron-Allen & Earland 1929 [incl. Arpsammosiphoum Rhumbler 1913, Psammosiphon Rhumbler 1911 non Vine 1882] LT64a

Schizammina wedmoriensis (Chapman 1895) [=Nodosinella wedmoriensis, *Arpsammosiphoum wedmoriense, *Psammosiphon wedmoriense] LT64a

*Type species of generic name indicated


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