Elphidium clavatum, from US Geological Survey.

Belongs within: Rotaliida.

The Elphidiidae are a group of Foraminifera known from the Palaeocene to the present, characterised by a canal system opening to rows of sutural pores. In members of the subfamily Elphidiinae, the single or multiple aperture is interiomarginal or areal in location; in members of the Faujasininae, the aperture comprises one or two rows or a cluster of pores, located near the base of the apertural face (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test planispiral, trochospiral, or uncoiling; sutural canal system opening into single or double row of sutural pores; wall calcareous, perforate, radial in structure; aperture interiomarginal, single or multiple, or areal.

    |--Faujasininae S-VC91
    |    |--Faujasina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 [=Faujassina Terquem 1882] LT64b
    |    |    `--*F. carinata d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 C40
    |    |--Parrellina Thalmann 1951 [=Elphidioides Parr 1950 non Cushman 1945] LT64b
    |    |    |--*P. imperatrix (Brady 1881) [=Polystomella imperatrix, *Elphidioides imperatrix] LT64b
    |    |    `--P. craticulatiformis LT64b
    |    |--Porosorotalia Voloshinova 1958 [incl. Cribrorotalia Hornibrook 1961] LT64b
    |    |    |--*P. clarki (Voloshinova in Voloshinova & Dain 1952) [=Notorotalia clarki] LT64b
    |    |    `--P. tainuia (Dorreen 1948) [=Notorotalia tainuia, *Cribrorotalia tainuia] LT64b
    |    `--Polystomellina Yabe & Hanzawa 1923 [incl. Notorotalia Finlay 1939] LT64b
    |         |--*P. discorbinoides (Yabe & Hanzawa 1923) [=Polystomella (*Polystomellina) discorbinoides] LT64b
    |         |--‘Notorotalia’ clathrata C40
    |         |--‘Notorotalia’ howchini Q72
    |         |--‘Notorotalia’ stachei B49
    |         `--P. zelandica (Finlay 1939) [=*Notorotalia zelandica] LT64b
    `--Elphidiinae S-VC91
         |--Elphidiella Cushman 1936 LT64b
         |    `--*E. arctica (Parker & Jones in Brady 1864) [=Polystomella arctica] LT64b
         |--Laffitteina Marie 1946 LT64b
         |    `--*L. bibensis Marie 1946 LT64b
         |--Pellatispirella Hanzawa 1937 LT64b
         |    `--*P. matleyi (Vaughan 1929) [=Camerina matleyi] LT64b
         |--Cellanthus de Montfort 1808 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    |--*C. craticulatus (Fichtel & Moll 1798) (se below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    `--C. gunterii (Cole 1931) S-VC91
         |--Ozawaia Cushman 1931 LT64b
         |    |--*O. tongaensis Cushman 1931 C40
         |    `--O. pacifica C40
         |--Protelphidium Haynes 1956 [incl. Porosononion Putrya in Voloshinova 1958] LT64b
         |    |--*P. hofkeri Haynes 1956 LT64b
         |    `--P. tuberculatum (d’Orbigny 1846) [=Nonionina tuberculata; incl. N. subgranosa Egger 1857] LT64b
         |--Cribroelphidium Cushman & Brönnimann 1948 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    |--*C. vadescens Cushman & Brönnimann 1948 LT64b
         |    |--C. kugleri LT64b
         |    |--C. poeyanum (d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839) [=Polystomella poeyana, *Elphidiononion poeyanum] LT64b
         |    |--C. translucens (Natland 1938) [=C. spinatum var. translucens] S-VC91
         |    `--C. vulgare (Voloshinova in Voloshinova & Dain 1952) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |--Cribrononion Thalmann 1947 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    |--*C. heteroporum (Egger 1857) [=Nonionina heteropora, Nonion (*Cribrononion) heteroporum] LT64b
         |    |--C. clarum (Krasheninnikov 1960) [=Canalifera (*Criptocanalifera) clara] LT64b
         |    |--C. eichwaldi (Bogdanovich in Serova 1955) [=Elphidium eichwaldi, *Canalifera eichwaldi] LT64b
         |    |--C. incertum LT64b
         |    |--C. kerguelense S05
         |    `--C. sandiegoensis Lankford 1973 S-VC91
         `--Elphidium de Montfort 1808 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--*E. macellum (Fichtel & Moll 1798) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--E. aculeatum S05 [=Polystomella aculeata H04]
              |--E. adventum S05
              |--‘Nautilus’ ambiguus Fichtel & Moll 1798 [=*Pelorus ambiguus] LT64b
              |--E. arcticum C40
              |--E. clavatum LT64a
              |--E. craticulatum S05
              |--E. crespinae Q72
              |--E. crispum (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--E. depressulum S05
              |--E. discoidale LT64a
              |--E. fimbriatulum LT64a
              |--E. gibsoni H90
              |--E. gunteri LT64a
              |--E. incertum LT64a
              |    |--E. i. incertum LT64a
              |    `--E. i. mexicanum LT64a
              |--E. jenseni S05
              |--E. laminatum (Terquem 1878) [=Polystomella laminata, *Planoelphidium laminatum] LT64b
              |--E. lessonii C40
              |--E. macelliforme LJ98
              |--E. orbiculare LT64a
              |--E. oregonense BC79
              |--E. poeyanum LT64a
              |--E. repandus S05
              |--E. saginatum H90
              |--E. semiinvolutum Myatlyuk in Dabagyan, Myatlyuk & Pishvanova 1956 [=*Faujasinella semiinvoluta] LT64b
              |--E. strigillatum (Fichtel & Moll 1798) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--E. subevolutum LT64b
              |--E. tenuissimum (Karrer 1865) [=Polystomella tenuissima, *Discorotalia tenuissima] LT64b
              |--E. terquemianum Le Calvez 1950 LT64b
              `--‘Polystomella’ venusta H04

Cellanthus de Montfort 1808 [=Carpenterella Krasheninnikov 1953 nec Collenette 1933 nec Bermúdez 1949, Cellulia Agassiz 1844, Helicoza Möbius 1880, Vorticialis Lamarck 1812] LT64b

*Cellanthus craticulatus (Fichtel & Moll 1798) [=Nautilus craticulatus, *Carpenterella craticulata, *Cellulia craticulata, Elphidiella craticulata, *Helicoza craticulata, Polystomella craticulata, *Vorticialis craticulatus] LT64b

Cribroelphidium Cushman & Brönnimann 1948 [=Cribroelphydium Tinoco 1955; incl. Elphidiononion Hofker 1951, Rimelphidium Voloshinova 1958] LT64b

Cribroelphidium vulgare (Voloshinova in Voloshinova & Dain 1952) [=Elphidium vulgare, C. (*Rimelphidium) vulgare] LT64b

Cribrononion Thalmann 1947 [incl. Canalifera Krasheninnikov 1960, Criptocanalifera Krasheninnikov 1960] LT64b

Elphidium de Montfort 1808 [=Geophonus de Montfort 1808, Ceophonus (l. c.), Geoponus Ehrenberg 1839; incl. Andromedes de Montfort 1808, Discorotalia Hornibrook 1961, Faujasinella Voloshinova 1958, Pelorus de Montfort 1808, Planoelphidium Voloshinova 1958, Polystomatium Ehrenberg 1839, Polystomella Lamarck 1822, Sporilus de Montfort 1808, Themeon de Montfort 1808, Themeone Berthold in Latreille 1827] LT64b

Elphidium crispum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Nautilus crispus, Polystomella crispa, *Themeon crispum; incl. T. rigatus de Montfort 1808] LT64b

*Elphidium macellum (Fichtel & Moll 1798) [=Nautilus macellus, *Geophonus macellus, Polystomella macella] LT64b

Elphidium strigillatum (Fichtel & Moll 1798) [=Nautilus strigillatus, *Andromedes strigillatus, *Polystomatium strigillatum, Polystomella strigillata, *Sporilus strigillatus] LT64b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[BC79] Berggren, W. A., & J. A. Van Couvering. 1979. Quaternary. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A505–A543. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H90] Hayward, B. W. 1990. Use of foraminiferal data in analysis of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 20: 71–83.

[LJ98] Li, Q., N. P. James, B. McGowran, Y. Bone & J. Cann. 1998. Synergetic influence of water masses and Kangaroo Island barrier on foraminiferal distribution, Lincoln and Lacepede shelves, South Australia: a synthesis. Alcheringa 22 (2): 153–176.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.

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