New Zealand half crab Petrolisthes elongatus, photographed by Graham Bould.

Belongs within: Reptantia.
Contains: Paguroidea, Coenobitoidea, Lepidopinae, Albuneinae, Galatheidae.

The Anomala (sometimes known as Anomura, a name that other authors would prefer to be associated with a larger grouping also includes the Thalassinida) contains the hermit crabs, stone crabs and half crabs. In general, anomalans resemble true crabs (Brachyura) but have a less reduced abdomen. The best known members are probably the hermit crabs of the Paguridea that commonly carry gastropod shells or other items to cover their largely uncalcified abdomens (though both of the Paguridea superfamilies Paguroidea and Coenobitoidea include non-'hermit crab' members). The Porcellanidae, porcelain crabs or half crabs, are flattened crustaceans that live in rock crevices.

Synapomorphies (from Dixon et al. 2003): Basal articles of second antenna fitting into a notch in the carapace; coxosternal joints of thoracopods reversed; cheliped rotated so that dactylus is horizontal; first pleopod of female absent.

<==Anomala [Anomalia, Anomaux]
    |  i. s.: Pisidia DAS03
    |           |--P. longicornis (Linnaeus 1767) DAS03
    |           `--P. longimana (Risso 1816) KK03
    |--Lomis [Lomidae, Lomisidae, Lomisoidea, Lomoidea] DAS03
    |    `--L. hirta (Lamarck 1818) DAS03
    |--Paguridea ML01
    |    |--Paguroidea ML01
    |    `--Coenobitoidea ML01
    |--Hippoidea B02
    |    |--Albuneidae B02
    |    |    |--Lepidopinae B02
    |    |    `--Albuneinae B02
    |    |--Hippidae B02
    |    |    |--Hippa Fabricius 1787 [incl. Remipes Latreille 1806] B01
    |    |    |    |--*H. adactyla Fabricius 1787 B01
    |    |    |    |--H. pacifica (Dana 1852) TSH09
    |    |    |    `--‘Remipes’ scutellatus F15
    |    |    `--Emerita Scopoli 1777 B02
    |    |         |--*E. emerita (Linnaeus 1767) [=Cancer emeritus, Hippa emerita] B55
    |    |         |--E. analoga CH97
    |    |         |--E. portoricensis Schmitt 1935 DAS03
    |    |         `--E. rathbunae Schmitt 1935 B02
    |    `--Blepharipodidae B02
    |         |--Lophomastix Benedict 1904 [=Lophmastix (l. c.), Lophomastrix (l. c.), Lophopmastrix (l. c.)] B02
    |         |    |--*L. diomedeae Benedict 1904 B02
    |         |    |--L. antiqua Schweitzer & Boyko 2000 B02
    |         |    `--L. japonica (Duruflé 1889) (see below for synonymy) B02
    |         `--Blepharipoda Randall 1840 (see below for synonymy) B02
    |              |--*B. occidentalis Randall 1840 (see below for synonymy) B02
    |              |--B. doelloi Schmitt 1942 B02
    |              |--B. liberata Shen 1949 [=B. libeata (l. c.)] B02
    |              `--B. spinosa (Milne Edwards & Lucas 1841) (see below for synonymy) B02
    `--Galatheoidea CA04
         |  i. s.: Lophoraninella cretacea (Dames 1886) SL03
         |--Galatheidae CA04
         |--Aegla Leach 1821 H86 [Aeglidae MD01]
         |    |--A. cavernicola Türkay 1972 H86
         |    `--A. strinatii Türkay 1972 H86
         |--Uroptychus MG-H11 [Chirostylidae MD01]
         |    |--U. australis (Henderson 1885) MG-H11
         |    |--U. flindersi Ahyong & Poore 2004 MG-H11
         |    |--U. gracilimanus (Henderson 1885) MG-H11
         |    `--U. hesperius Ahyong & Poore 2004 MG-H11
         `--Porcellanidae MD01
              |--Porcellana Lamarck 1801 BR05
              |    `--P. platycheles (Pennant 1777) KK03
              |--Lissoporcellana MG-H11
              |--Neopetrolisthes maculatus (Milne Edwards 1837) TSH09
              |--Polyonyx biunguiculatus (Dana 1852) MG-H11
              |--Platycheles sculptus (Milne Edwards 1837) MG-H11
              |--Porcellanella triloba White 1851 MG-H11
              `--Petrolisthes Stimpson 1858 B55
                   |--P. armatus (Gibbes 1850) [=Porcellana armata] B55
                   |--P. asiaticus (Leach 1820) TSH09
                   |--P. boscii P71
                   |--P. elongatus HS01
                   |--P. glasselli Haig 1957 PB06
                   |--P. haigae B02
                   |--P. haswelli Miers 1884 TSH09
                   |--P. lamarckii (Leach 1820) TSH09
                   |--P. militaris (Heller 1862) MG-H11
                   |--P. scabriculus (Dana 1852) MG-H11
                   `--P. tonsorius B02

Blepharipoda Randall 1840 [=Blefaripoda (l. c.), Blepharopoda (l. c.), Blephoripoda (l. c.); incl. Abrote Philippi 1857, Albunhippa Milne Edwards & Lucas 1841, Albunhipa (l. c.), Albunhippe (l. c.)] B02

*Blepharipoda occidentalis Randall 1840 [=Blepharopoda (l. c.) occidentalis, Blephoripoda (l. c.) occidentalis] B02

Blepharipoda spinosa (Milne Edwards & Lucas 1841) [=*Albunhippa spinosa, Blephaopoda speciosa (l. c.), Blepharopoda (l. c.) spinosa; incl. Abrote spinimana Philippi 1857, Blepharopoda (l. c.) spinimana] B02

Lophomastix japonica (Duruflé 1889) [=Blepharopoda (l. c. for Blepharipoda) japonica, Blephacopoda (l. c. for Blepharipoda) japonica, Lophmastix (l. c.) japonica, Lophopmastrix (l. c.) japonica; incl. Lophomastrix (l. c.) brevirostris Urita 1934, Lophomastix brevirostris, Lophomastix tchangsii Yü 1935, Blepharopoda (l. c.) fauriana Bouvier 1898, Blepharipoda fauriana] B02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B55] Bott, R. 1955. Dekapoden (Crustacea) aus El Salvador. 2. Litorale Dekapoden, außer Uca. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 45–70.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B01] Boyko, C. B. 2001. The identity of Hippa caerulea Risso 1816: An isopod in mole crab’s disguise. Crustaceana 74 (1): 115–122.

[B02] Boyko, C. B. 2002. A worldwide revision of the recent and fossil sand crabs of the Albuneidae Stimpson and Blepharipodidae, new family (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Hippoidea). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 272: 1–396.

[CA04] Casadío, S., A. de Angeli, R. M. Feldmann, A. Garassino, J. L. Hetler, A. Parras & C. E. Schweitzer. 2004. New decapod crustaceans (Thalassinidea, Galatheoidea, Brachyura) from the Middle Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 25–47.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology, 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[DAS03] Dixon, C. J., S. T. Ahyong & F. R. Schram. 2003. A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny. Crustaceana 76: 935–975.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 243–269.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H86] Holthuis, L. B. 1986. Decapoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 589–615. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KK03] Kocataş, A. & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[PB06] Poupin, J., & J. M. Bouchard. 2006. The eastern Pacific species of the genus Calcinus Dana, 1851, with description of a new species from Clipperton Island (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae). Zoosystema 28 (2): 465–486.

[SL03] Schweitzer, C. E., K. J. Lacovara, J. B. Smith, M. C. Lamanna, M. A. Lyon & Y. Attia. 2003. Mangrove-dwelling crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura: Necrocarcinidae) associated with dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Egypt. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 888–894.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

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