Dexiarchia

Tethys leporina, from here.


Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.
Contains: Aeolidida.

The Dexiarchia are a clade of nudibranchs characterised by a right-laterally located anus and usually a more or less branched digestive gland. The basal genus Doridoxa retains an unbranched digestive gland similar to that found in other nudibranchs.

<==Dexiarchia [Actenidiacea]
    |--Doridoxa Bergh 1899 [Doridoxida, Doridoxidae, Doridoxoidea, Pseudoeuctenidiacea] BR05
    `--Cladobranchia [Abranchia, Cladohepatica] BR05
         |  i. s.: Charcotiidae BR05
         |           |--Charcotia Vayssière 1906 BR05
         |           `--Leminda Griffiths 1985 [Lemindidae] BR05
         |         Goniaeolis Sars 1861 [Goniaeolididae] BR05
         |         Hero Lovén in Alder & Hancock 1855 [Heroacea, Heroidae, Heroinae] BR05
         |         Pinufius Marcus & Marcus 1960 [Pinufiidae] BR05
         |--Aeolidida BR05
         |--Arminina [Euarminoidea] H01
         |    |--Arminoidea [Arminacea, Euarminida] BR05
         |    |    |--Doridomorphidae [Doridoeididae] BR05
         |    |    |    |--Doridoeides Eliot & Evans 1908 BR05
         |    |    |    `--Doridomorpha Eliot 1903 BR05
         |    |    `--Arminidae [Euarminacea] BR05
         |    |         |--Pleuroleura Bergh 1874 [Pleuroleuridae] BR05
         |    |         |--Heterodoris Verrill & Emerton 1882 [Heterodoridae, Heterodorididae] BR05
         |    |         |--Dermatobranchus van Hasselt 1824 [Dermatobranchidae, Dermatobranchinae] BR05
         |    |         |--Atthila Bergh 1899 [Atthilidae] BR05
         |    |         |--Histiomena convolvula (Lance 1962) PP78
         |    |         `--Armina Rafinesque 1814 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |    |              `--A. californica (Cooper 1862) PP78
         |    `--Metarminoidea BR05
         |         |--Dirona MacFarland in Eliot 1905 H01, BR05 [Dironidae]
         |         |--Madrella Alder & Hancock 1864 [Madrellidae] BR05
         |         `--Proctonotidae (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |              |--Zephyrina Quatrefages 1844 BR05
         |              |--Proctonotus Alder 1844 [Proctonotinae] BR05
         |              |--‘Janus’ Verany 1844 non Stephens 1835 [Janina] BR05
         |              |--‘Venilia’ Alder & Hancock 1844 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |              |--Antiopella Hoyle 1902 [=Antiopa Alder & Hancock 1848 non Meigen 1800] BR05
         |              |    `--A. fusca (O’Donoghue 1924) H01
         |              `--Janolus Bergh 1884 BR05
         |                   |--*J. australis P61
         |                   `--J. novozelandica (Eliot 1907) P61 [=Antiopella novozealandica F27]
         `--Dendronotina H01
              |  i. s.: Dotidae [Dotonidae] H01
              |           |--Idulia Leach in Gray 1852 [Iduliidae] BR05
              |           `--Doto Oken 1815 BR05
              |                |--D. coronata (Gmelin 1791) H01
              |                `--D. pinnatifida (Montagu 1804) H01
              `--Tritonioidea [Dendronotida, Dicerata, Duvauceliidae, Seribranchia] BR05
                   |--Hancockia Gosse 1877 [Hancockidae, Hancockiidae] BR05
                   |--Scyllaea Linnaeus 1758 [Scyllaeidae] BR05
                   |--Bornella Gray 1850 [Bornellidae] BR05
                   |    `--B. digitata Adams & Reeve 1850 H09
                   |--Dendronotus Alder & Hancock 1845 [Dendronotacea, Dendronotidae, Dendronotinae] BR05
                   |    |--D. arborescens H04
                   |    `--D. iris Cooper 1863 H01
                   |--Lomanotus Verany 1844 [Lomanotidae] BR05
                   |    `--L. genei (Vérany 1846) H01
                   |--Aranucidae BR05
                   |    |--Aranucus Odhner 1936 [Aranucidae] BR05
                   |    `--Marianina Pruvot-Fol 1931 [Marianinidae] BR05
                   |--Phylliroidae [Phylliroidae, Phyllirrhoea, Psilosomata] BR05
                   |    |--Nectophyllirhoe Hoffmann 1922 [Nectophyllirhoidae] BR05
                   |    |--‘Dactylopus’ Bonnevie 1921 nec Gill 1859 nec Claus 1862 [Dactylopodidae] BR05
                   |    |--Phylliroe Péron & Lesueur 1810 [=Phyllirhoe (l. c.)] BR05
                   |    |    `--*P. bucephala (Peron & Lesueur 1810) P61
                   |    `--Pellibranchus Ralph 1944 P61
                   |         `--*P. cinnabareus Ralph 1944 P61
                   |--Tritoniidae [Duvauceliidae, Tritoniana, Tritoniomorpha, Zonabranchiatae] BR05
                   |    |--Duvaucelia Risso 1826 BR05
                   |    |--Marionia MG-H11
                   |    |--Necromantes Gistl 1848 P61 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    |    |--N. flemingi Powell 1937 P61
                   |    |    `--N. incerta (Bergh 1904) P61 [=Tritonia incerta F27, Sphaerostoma incerta F27]
                   |    `--Tritonia Cuvier 1797 [Tritoniinae] BR05
                   |         |--T. diomedia KC11
                   |         `--T. hombergii H04
                   `--Tethydidae [Tethyadae, Tethydia, Tethymelibidae] BR05
                        |--‘Fimbria’ Bohadsch ex O’Donoghue 1926 non Mühlfeld 1811 [Fimbriidae] BR05
                        |--Chioraera Gould 1852 [Chioraeridae] BR05
                        |--Melibe Rang 1829 [=Meliboea (l. c.); Melibidae, Melibinae, Meliboeadae] BR05
                        |    |--M. bucephala Bergh 1902 BW09
                        |    |--M. fimbriata Alder & Hancock 1864 BD86
                        |    `--M. leonina (Gould 1852) PP78
                        `--Tethys Linnaeus 1767 BR05 [incl. Phoenicurus Rudolphi 1819 non Forster 1817 D56; Tethydinae]
                             |--*T. leporina O27
                             |--T. sparsinotata (Smith 1884) [=Aplysia sparsinotata] H09
                             `--T. tigrina (Rang. 1828) [=Aplysia tigrina] H09

Armina Rafinesque 1814 [incl. Diphyllidia Blainville 1819, Pleurophyllidia Meckel 1823; Armininae, Diphyllidiae, Diphyllidiidae, Pleurophyllidiidae] BR05

Proctonotidae [Antiopellidae, Antiopidae, Antiopinae, Janolidae, Pachygnatha, Zephyrinidae] BR05

Necromantes Gistl 1848 P61 [incl. Sphaerostoma Macgillivray 1843 non Rudolphi 1809 P61, BR05; Sphaerostomatidae, Sphaerostomidae]

‘Venilia’ Alder & Hancock 1844 nec Rafinesque 1815 nec Morton 1833 [Veniliinae, Venilinae] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Bulla

Bulla ampulla, copyright Erwin Köhler.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

Bulla is a genus of relatively large bubble snails with a well-developed shell into which the animal is able to withdraw completely.

Characters (from Malaquias & Reid 2008): Shell ovoid, solid, mottled in drab colours. Spire involute. Aperture slightly longer than shell height. Cephalic shield produced antero-laterally, forming pair of siphon-like tentacles. Penis invaginable, formed by a long duct continuous with coiled prostate, ending in a narrow terminal blind caecum; all structures enclosed in thick muscular sheath, contiguous with a long tubular vestibular area; retractor muscle attached to proximal area of penial sheath. Anterior gonoduct slightly helicoid; fertilization chamber rounded, located at mid-length; seminal receptacle placed antero-ventrally, attached to wall of common genital duct. Rachidian tooth broad, denticulate, with central cusp usually smaller. Large gap between rachidian and laterals. Inner lateral claw-shaped, usually symmetrical with major central cusp and 3–4 lateral cusps on either side. Outer lateral with smooth vertical internal edge and denticulate convex outer edge with 4–10 cusps; base with denticle. Second outer lateral teeth reduced, plate-like. Gizzard plates uncalcified, smooth, with longitudinal keel.

<==Bulla Linnaeus 1758 [=Bullaria Rafinesque 1815, Vesica Swainson 1840] BR05
    |--*B. ampulla Linnaeus 1758 BR05 [=*Bullaria ampulla O27, *Vesica ampulla BR05]
    |--B. adamsi Menke 1850 [=Bullaria adamsi] H09
    |--B. ambigua Gmelin 1791 F27b
    |--B. ‘ambigua’ d’Orbigny 1842 non Gmelin 1791 F27b
    |--‘Bullaria’ australis F27a
    |--‘Bullaria’ botanica Hedley 1918 F27a
    |--B. elongata Phillips 1835 F27b
    |--‘Bullaria’ gouldiana Pilsbry 1893 O27
    |--B. incincta Mighels 1844 J49
    |--B. occulta Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
    |--B. pertenius Mighels 1843 J49
    |--B. punctostriata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
    |--B. punctulata Adams 1850 [=Bullaria punctulata] H09
    |--‘Bullaria’ quoyana Dall 1919 [=Bulla quoyi Adams 1850 non Gray 1843] O27
    |--B. quoyi Gray 1843 [=Bullaria quoyi] F27a
    |--B. striata C60
    |--‘Bullaria’ tenuissima M54
    `--B. voluta Gmelin 1791 F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

Malaquias, M. A. E., & D. G. Reid. 2008. Systematic revision of the living species of Bullidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea), with a molecular phylogenetic analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153 (3): 453–543.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Diaphanidae

Shell of Cylichnella bidentatus, copyright David Kirsh.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

The Diaphanidae are a group of thin-shelled bubble snails lacking mantle parapodia, jaws or gizzard plates.

Characters (from Ohnheiser & Malaquias 2014): Umbilicate thin, fragile, voluminous shell present into which the animal is capable of retreating completely; jaws and gizzard plates absent, radula usually with single lateral tooth on each side and rachidian present. Foot usually forked posteriorly, parapodia absent. Penis armed.

<==Diaphanidae BR05
    |--Toledonia Dall 1902 [Toledoniinae, Toledoninae] BR05
    |    `--T. limnaeaeformis (Smith 1877) [=Admete limnaeaeformis, Cancellaria limnaeiformis (l. c.)] PH90
    |--Brocktonia Iredale 1915 O27
    |    `--B. polystrigma Dall 1908 O27
    |--Diaphana Brown 1827 [incl. Amphisphyra Lovén 1846; Amphisphyradae, Amphisphyridae, Diaphaninae] BR05
    |    |--*D. minuta O27
    |    |--D. brunnea Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--D. californica Dall 1919 O27
    |    `--D. globosa Loven 1846 O27
    `--Cylichnella Gabb 1872 O27
         |  i. s.: C. arachis F27
         |         C. pygmaea F27
         |         C. thetidis F27
         |         C. zealandica F27
         |--*C. (Cylichnella) bidentatus O27
         `--C. (Bullinella Newton 1891) O27
              |--C. (B.) alba Brown 1827 O27
              |--C. (B.) attonsa Carpenter 1865 O27
              |--C. (B.) diegensis Dall 1919 O27
              |--‘Bullinella’ enysi A27
              |--C. (B.) nucleola (Reeve 1855) [=Bulla nucleola] O27
              `--C. (B.) occulta Mighels 1841 O27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

Ohnheiser, L. T., & M. A. E. Malaquias. 2014. The family Diaphanidae (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea) in Europe, with a redescription of the enigmatic species Colobocephalus costellatus M. Sars, 1870. Zootaxa 3774 (6): 501–522.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E. & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus Supplement 1: 1–69.

Retusidae

Retusa truncatula, from here.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

The Retusidae, canoe shells, are a family of cephalaspid gastropods characterised by the lack of a radula.

<==Retusidae [Retusoidea, Rhizoridae, Volvulellidae, Volvulidae]
    |--Ventomnestia girardi (Audouin 1827) [=Bulla girardi, Alicula girardi, Cylichna girardi] BD86
    |--‘Volvula’ Adams 1850 non Gistl 1848 BR05
    |    `--V. sulcata (Watson 1883) [=Cylichna sulcata] H09
    |--Rhizorus Montfort 1810 BR05
    |    |--‘Bulla’ acuminata [incl. *Rhizorus adelaidis] F27a
    |    |--R. nesentus Finlay 1927 F27a
    |    `--R. reflexus [=Cylichna reflexa] F27a
    |--Volvulella Newton 1891 BR05
    |    |--*V. acuminata [=Volvula acuminata] O27
    |    |--V. californica Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--V. cooperi Dall 1919 O27
    |    `--V. cylindrica Carpenter 1863 O27
    `--Retusa Brown 1827 BR05
         |  i. s.: R. amphizosta (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus amphizosta] H09
         |         R. complanata (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus complanatus] H09
         |         R. decapitata Dall 1896 F27b
         |         R. mamillata M62
         |         R. nitida (Adams 1850) [=Bulla nitida] H09
         |         R. obtusa Montagu 1803 O27
         |         R. oruaensis HS01
         |         R. ovata C60
         |         R. pertenuis Mighels 1843 O27
         |         R. semen Reeve 1856 O27
         |         R. simillima (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus simillimus] H09
         |         R. succincta GAS03
         |         R. suteri Finlay 1927 [=Tornatina decapitata Suter 1909, R. decapitata non Dall 1896] F27b
         |--*R. (Retusa) truncatula (Bruguiere 1772) [=Bulla truncatula] O27
         |--R. (Coleophysis Fischer 1883) O27
         |    `--R. (C.) harpa Dall 1871 O27
         `--R. (Sulcularia Dall 1920) O27
              `--R. (S.) xystrum Dall 1919 O27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Haminoeidae

Atys naucum, copyright Erwin Köhler.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

The Haminoeidae are a group of bubble snails that primarily graze on algal tissue and/or diatoms; the shell may be partially or entirely covered by lateral outgrowths of the mantle. The shell may be thin and fragile as in the genus Haminoea, or relatively solid and thick as in Atys.

Characters (from Too et al. 2014): Shell usually thin, translucent, fragile, occasionally solid and thick; varying from bulloid to cylindrical-elongate; spiral grooves may be present at ends or covering entire shell. Mantle and other body parts usually dull and cryptically coloured, occasionally colourful or capable of changing colour to suit environment. Muscular buccal bulb present containing chitinous jaws and radula formed by variably-shaped central tooth plus hook-shaped lateral teeth. Fizzard present with three plates containing pointed rods.

<==Haminoeidae
    |--Liloa curta (Adams 1850) MG-H11
    |--Haminoea Turton 1830 [Hamineinae, Haminoeinae] BR05
    |    |--*H. hydatis [=Bulla hydatis] O27
    |    |--H. arthuri Finlay 1927 [=Bulla ambigua Adams 1850 nec Gmelin 1791 nec d’Orbigny 1842, H. ambigua] F27
    |    |--H. olgae Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--H. vesicula Gould 1855 O27
    |    |--H. virescens Sowerby 1833 O27
    |    `--H. zelandiae Gray 1843 P61
    `--Atys Montfort 1810 [Atydidae, Atydinae, Atydoidea] BR05
         |--*A. naucum (Linnaeus 1758) O27, BR05 [=Bulla naucum BR05]
         |--A. casta Carpenter 1864 O27
         |--A. cheverti Brazier 1877 H09
         |--A. cylindricus (Helbling 1779) BW09 [=Bulla cylindrica H09]
         |--A. darnleyensis Brazier 1877 H09
         |--A. debilis Pease 1860 H09
         |--A. decora (Brazier 1877) [=Haminea decora] H09
         |--A. extensa Finlay 1927 [=Bulla elongata Adams 1850 non Phillips 1835, Atys elongata] F27
         |--A. monodonta (Adams 1850) [=Bulla monodonta] H09
         |--A. nonscripta (Adams 1850) [=Bulla nonscripta] O27
         |--A. solida (Bruguière 1792) [=Bulla solida] H09
         `--A. tortuosa (Adams 1850) [=Bulla tortuosa] H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Too, C. C., C. Carlson, P. J. Hoff & M. A. E. Malaquias. 2014. Diversity and systematics of Haminoeidae gastropods (Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea) in the tropical West Pacific Ocean: new data on the genera Aliculastrum, Atys, Diniatys and Liloa. Zootaxa 3794 (3): 355–392.

Thecosomata

Limacina helicina, copyright Alexander Semenov.


Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.
Contains: Cavoliniidae.

The Thecosomata, sea butterflies, are a group of pelagic marine gastropods that have the foot modified into a pair of wing-like parapodia used in swimming. Most Thecosomata retain a calcareous shell, though the shell is demineralised or lost in some subgroups.

<==Thecosomata [Campyloconques]
    |  i. s.: Tiedemannia BR05
    |--Cymbulioidea [Cymbuliacea, Pseudothecosomata] BR05
    |    |--Desmopterus Chun 1889 [Desmopteridae] BR05
    |    |    `--D. pacificus Essenberg 1919 O27
    |    |--Peraclidae [Peraclacea, Peraclididae] BR05
    |    |    |--Procymbulia Meisenheimer 1905 [Procymbuliidae] BR05
    |    |    `--Peracle Forbes 1844 BR05
    |    |         `--P. reticulata B26
    |    `--Cymbuliidae [Cymbuliadae] BR05
    |         |--Gleba Forskal 1776 [Glebinae] BR05
    |         |--Cymbulia Péron & Lesueur 1810 [Cymbuliinae] BR05
    |         |    `--C. parvidentata Pelseneer 1888 F27
    |         `--Corolla Dall 1871 O27
    |              |--*C. spectabilis Dall 1871 O27
    |              `--C. calceola B26
    `--Cavolinioidea [Euthecosomata] BR05
         |--Cavoliniidae BR05
         |--Sphaerocina Jung 1971 [Sphaerocinidae] BR05
         `--Limacinidae [Limacinacea] BR05
              |--Spirialis Eydoux & Souleyet 1840 [Spirialidae] BR05
              |--Spiratella Blainville 1817 [Spiratellacea, Spiratellidae] BR05
              |    |--*S. antarctica O27
              |    |--S. australis (Eyd. & Soul 1840) F27
              |    `--S. pacifica Dall 1871 O27
              `--Limacina Bosc 1817 BR05
                   |--L. bulimoides (d’Orbigny 1836) [=Atlanta bulimoides] H09
                   |--L. helicina B26
                   |--L. leseuri (d’Orbigny 1836) [=Atlanta leseuri] H09
                   |--L. rangii B26
                   `--L. retroversa [incl. L. balea] B26

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Philinidae

Philine scabra, copyright Daniel L. Geiger.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

The Philinidae are a group of headshield slugs with a delicate internal shell and a dorsal aspect divided between the four regions of head, visceral mass and lateral parapodial lobes.

<==Philinidae BR05
    |--Bullaea Lamarck 1801 [=Bullea (l. c.), Bullinia Rafinesque 1815; Bullaeana, Bullaeidae, Bullinitia] BR05
    |--Laona Adams 1865 [Laoninae] BR05
    `--Philine Ascanius 1772 BR05
         |--*P. aperta O27 [=Bullaea aperta BR05]
         |--P. angasi (Crosse & Fischer 1845) [=Bullaea angasi] H09
         |--P. bakeri Dall 1919 O27
         |--P. catena (Montagu 1803) APS-P86
         |--P. denticulata (Adams 1800) APS-P86
         |--P. exigua Challis 1969 APS-P86
         |--P. finmarchica O27
         |--P. gibba M62
         |--P. polaris Aurivillius 1885 O27
         |--P. quadrata APS-P86
         |--P. scabra APS-P86
         |--P. schroeteri (Philippi 1844) [=Bullaea schroeteri] H09
         `--P. sinuata Stimpson 1850 APS-P86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APS-P86] Arnaud, P. M., Cl. Poizat & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Marine-interstitial Gastropoda (including one freshwater interstitial species).  In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 153–176. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Gymnosomata

Hunting Clione limacina, copyright Alexander Semenov.


Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.

The Gymnosomata, sea angels, are a group of shell-less, pelagic marine gastropods in which the foot has been modified into a pair of large parapodia used for swimming.

<==Gymnosomata
    |--Hydromyloidea [Gymnoptera] BR05
    |    |--Laginiopsis Pruvot-Fol 1922 [Laginiopsidae] BR05
    |    `--Hydromylidae [Anopsiidae, Cymodoceidae, Euribiacea, Euribiidae, Halopsychidae, Pterocymodoceidae] BR05
    |         |--Hydromyles Gistel 1848 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |         `--‘Euribia’ Rang 1827 non Meigen 1800 BR05
    `--Clionoidea [Cliacea] BR05
         |--Cliopsis Troschel 1854 [=Clionopsis (l. c.); Clionopsidae, Cliopsidae] BR05
         |--Notobranchaeidae BR05
         |    |--Notobranchaea Pelseneer 1886 [Notobranchaeinae] BR05
         |    `--Prionoglossa Tesch 1950 [Prionoglossinae] BR05
         |--Pneumodermatidae [Pneumodermonidae, Pneumonodermatidae, Pneumonodermoidae] BR05
         |    |--Crucibranchaea Pruvot-Fol 1942 [Crucibranchaeidae] BR05
         |    `--Pneumoderma de Roissy 1805 [=Pneumodermon, Pneumonoderma, Pneumonodermon; Pneumodermites] BR05
         |         |--*P. peronii O27
         |         |--P. pacifica Dall 1871 O27
         |         `--P. pygmaeum (Tesch 1903) H01
         `--Clionidae [Clionidia] BR05
              |--Thliptodontinae [Thliptodonidae, Thliptodontidae] BR05
              |    |--Thliptodon Boas 1886 [incl. Pteroceanis Meisenheimer 1902; Pteroceanidae] BR05
              |    `--Cephalobrachia Bonnevie 1912 [Cephalobrachiinae, Cephalobrachinae] BR05
              `--Clioninae [Cliodinae] BR05
                   |--Fowlerina Pelseneer 1906 [Fowlerinae, Fowlerininae] BR05
                   `--Clione Pallas 1774 BR05
                        |--*C. borealis O27
                        |--C. elegantissima Dall 1871 O27
                        `--C. limacina Phipps 1773 O27

Hydromyles Gistel 1848 [incl. Anopsia Gistel 1848, ‘Cymodocea’ d’Orbigny 1834 nec Rafinesque 1814 nec Lamouroux 1816 nec Leach 1818, Pterocymodocea Keferstein 1862, Halopsyche Keferstein 1862 non de Saussure 1857] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: A case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Cavoliniidae

Clio pyramidata, copyright R. W. Gilmer and G. R. Harbison.


Belongs within: Thecosomata.

The Cavoliniidae are a group of sea butterflies with an uncoiled shell present at maturity.

<==Cavoliniidae [Cavolinidae, Hyalaeidae, Hyalinea]
    |--Creseis Rang 1828 [Creseidae, Creseinae] BR05
    |    `--C. conica B26
    |--Cuvierininae [Cuvierinidae, Cuvieridae, Cuvieriidae, Tripteridae] BR05
    |    |--‘Cuvieria’ Rang 1827 non Lesueur & Petit 1807 BR05
    |    |--Triptera Quoy & Gaimard 1824 BR05
    |    `--Cuvierina Boas 1886 BR05
    |         |--C. columnella (Rang. 1827) [=Cuvieria columnella] H09
    |         `--C. urceolaris F27
    |--Cavolinia Abildgaard 1791 [incl. Hyalaea Lamarck 1799; Cavoliniinae] BR05
    |    |--*C. tridentata [=Hyalea tridentata] O27
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ gibbosa (d’Orbigny 1836) [=Hyalaea gibbosa] H09
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ inflexa (Lesueur 1813) F27 [=Hyalaea inflexa H09]
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ longirostris (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea longirostris] H09
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ occidentalis Dall 1908 O27
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ quadridentata (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea quadridentata] H09
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ strangulata Hedley 1907 F27
    |    |--‘Cavolina’ telemus (Linnaeus 1758) F27
    |    `--‘Cavolina’ uncinata (d’Orbigny 1836) [=Hyalaea uncinata] H09
    `--Clioinae [Cliidae, Clioidae] BR05
         |--Cleodora Péron & Lesueur 1810 [Cleodoridae] BR05
         `--Clio Linnaeus 1767 BR05
              |--*C. pyramidata Linne 1767 O27, H09
              |--C. acicula (Rang. 1828) [=Creseis acicula] H09
              |--C. annulata (Tate 1887) F27
              |--C. exacuta Gould 1852 O27
              |--C. occidentalis Dall 1871 O27
              |--C. rangiana F27
              |--C. striata (Rang. 1828) [=Creseis striata] H09
              |--C. subula (Quoy & Gaimard 1827) [=Cleodora subula] H09
              |--C. urenuiensis Suter 1917 F27
              `--C. virgula (Rang. 1828) [=Creseis virgula] H09

Cavoliniidae incertae sedis:
  Diacria trispinosa (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea trispinosa, Cavolina trispinosa] F27
  Styliola Gray 1847 O27, BR05
    |--*S. subulata (Q. & G. 1827) O27, F27 [=S. sublata (l. c.) F27]
    `--S. falcata Gould 1852 O27
  Cliodita caduceus Q. & G. 1825 F27
  Embolus inflatus (d’Orbigny 1836) F27 [=Atlanta inflata H09, Limacina inflata F27]
  Lornia Marwick 1926 F27
    `--*L. limata Marwick 1926 F27
  Vaginella F27
    |--V. aucklandica Clarke 1903 F27
    |--V. torpedo Marshall 1918 F27
    `--V. urceolaris (Moerch 1850) F27

Nomen nudum: Clio tatei Suter 1915 F27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Aplysiomorpha

Spotted sea hare Aplysia dactylomela, copyright Mike Tickle.


Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.

The Aplysiomorpha, sea hares and related taxa, are a group of soft-bodied marine gastropods with a reduced shell (external in Akeridae, internal in Aplysiidae). They are characterised by the presence of the defensive opaline and purple glands in the mantle cavity, and an oesophageal gizzard containing an anterior chamber with large chitinous plates and a posterior chamber with numerous fine spines (Sea Slug Forum.

<==Aplysiomorpha [Aplysiacea, Aplysiida, Aplysiina]
    |  i. s.: Phyllaplysia CG99
    |           |--P. engeli CG99
    |           `--P. smaragda CG99
    |--Akeridae [Akeroidea] BR05
    |    |--Akera Müller 1776 [=Acera (l. c.); Akerinae] BR05
    |    |    `--A. bullata C60
    |    `--Clistaxis [=Cryptaxis (preoc.)] O27
    |         |--*C. parvula O27
    |         |--C. crebripunctatus O27
    |         `--C. polystrigma Dall 1908 O27
    `--Aplysiidae [Aplysioidea, Laplysiana, Laplysinia, Tetracea] BR05
         |  i. s.: Sympterus BR05
         |--Dolabrifera Gray 1847 [Dolabriferidae, Dolabriferinae] BR05
         |    `--D. dolabrifera KC11
         |--Dolabella Lamarck 1801 [Dolabellidae, Dolabellinae] BR05
         |    |--D. auricularia (Lightfoot 1786) BW09
         |    |--D. ecaudata (Rang. 1828) [=Aplysia ecaudata] H09
         |    `--D. scapula (Martyn 1786) [=Patella scapula] H09
         |--Notarchinae [Brevicommisuratae, Notarchidae] BR05
         |    |--Busiris Risso 1826 [Busiridae] BR05
         |    `--Notarchus Cuvier 1817 BR05
         |         `--N. indicus Schweigger 1820 BD86
         |--Bursatella Blainville 1817 BD86, BR05 [Bursatellinae]
         |    `--B. leachi de Blainville 1817 BD86
         |         |--B. l. leachi BD86
         |         `--B. l. savigniana Audouin 1826 BD86
         `--Aplysia Linnaeus 1767 [=Laplysia; Aplysiinae, Longicommisurata] BR05
              |  i. s.: A. braziliana Rang 1828 S11
              |         A. californica Cooper 1863 TN03 [=Tethys (Neaplysia) californica O27]
              |         A. parvula HS01
              |         A. rosea [incl. A. rosea var. punctata] M62
              `--A. (Varria) W86
                   |--A. (V.) dactylomela Rang 1828 W86
                   |--A. (V.) denisoni Smith 1884 W86 [=Tethys denisoni H09]
                   |--A. (V.) gigantea Sowerby 1869 W86
                   |--A. (V.) oculifera Adams & Reeve 1850 W86
                   |--A. (V.) reticulata Eales 1960 W86
                   `--A. (V.) sydneyensis Sowerby 1869 [incl. A. tasmanica Tenison Woods 1876] W86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia, pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TN03] Thollesson, M., & J. L. Norenburg. 2003. Ribbon worm relationships: A phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 270: 407–415.

[W86] Wells, F. E. 1986. A redescription of the sea hare Aplysia gigantea Sowerby, 1869. J. Malac. Soc. Aust. 7 (3-4): 173–180.

Systellommatophora

Warty slug Onchidium verruculatum, copyright Cory Pittman.


Belongs within: Pulmonata.

The Systellommatophora are a group of slug-like gastropods, including the marine Onchidiidae and the terrestrial Veronicelloidea. Members of this group have two pairs of contractile tentacles on the head, with the eyes at the tip of the upper pair, and have the anus and renal opening at the posterior end of the body (Burch & Pearce 1990).

<==Systellommatophora [Digonophora, Ditremata, Gymnomorpha, Teletremata]
    |--Onchidiidae (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--Peronia Fleming 1822 [Peroniadae, Peroniidae] BR05
    |    |--Scaphis Labbé 1934 [Scaphidae] BR05
    |    |--Hoffmannola Strand 1932 [Hoffmannolidae, Hoffmannoloidea] BR05
    |    |--Peronina Plate 1893 [Peroninidae] BR05
    |    |--Platevindex Baker 1938 [Platevindecidae] BR05
    |    |--Quoyella Starobogatov 1976 [Quoyellidae] BR05
    |    |--Onchidina Semper 1882 [Onchidinidae] BR05
    |    |    `--O. australis Semper 1882 H09
    |    |--Arctonchis Dall 1905 O27
    |    |    `--*A. borealis (Dall 1871) [=Onchidella borealis] O27
    |    |--Onchidella Gray 1850 [=Oncidiella Crosse & Fischer 1878; Onchidellidae, Onchidelloidea, Oncidiellidae] BR05
    |    |    |--O. celtica C60
    |    |    `--O. nigricans HS01
    |    `--Onchidium Buchanan 1800 [=Oncidium (l. c.); Onchidiinae] BR05
    |         |--O. buetschlii Stantchinsky 1907 H09
    |         |--O. coriaceum Semper 1882 H09
    |         |--O. fungiforme Stantchinsky 1907 H09
    |         |--O. meriakrii Stantchinsky 1907 H09
    |         |--O. pallidipes Tapparone Canefri 1889 [=Oncidium pallidipes] TC89
    |         |--O. pallipes TC89
    |         |--O. punctatum Quoy & Gaimard 1832 H09
    |         |--O. tigrinum TC89
    |         |--O. tumidum Semper 1880 H09
    |         `--O. verruculatum Cuvier 1804 H09
    `--Veronicelloidea [Soleolifera, Veronicellacea] BR05
         |--Rathouisiidae [Rathouisiadae] SS10
         |    |--Rathouisia Heude 1884 BR05
         |    |--Prisma Simroth 1891 SS10
         |    |    `--P. prismatica (Tapparone-Canefri 1883) SS10
         |    `--Atopos Simroth 1891 SS10
         |         |--*a. semperi Simroth 1891 SS10
         |         `--A. australis (Heynemann 1876) SS10
         `--Veronicellidae [Imeriniinae, Sarasinulinae, Veronicellida] BR05
              |--Imerinia Cockerell 1891 BR05
              |--Veronicella Blainville 1817 [Veronicellinae] BR05
              |--Vaginulus Férussac 1821 [Anadenia, Euadenia, Mesotremata, Vaginulacea, Vaginulidae, Vaginulinae] BR05
              |--Semperula Grimpe & Hoffmann 1925 [Semperulinae] BR05
              |--Pseudoveronicella Germain 1908 [Pseudoveronicellinae] BR05
              |--Sarasinula Grimpe & Hoffmann 1924 BR05
              |    `--*S. plebeia (Fischer 1868) [=Vaginulus plebeius; incl. Vaginula hedleyi Simroth 1889] SS10
              |--Leonardia Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |    `--*L. nevilliana Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |--Angustipes Colosi 1922 BP90
              |    `--A. ameghini BP90
              |--Diplosolenodes Thomé 1975 BP90
              |    `--D. occidentale BP90
              |--Laevicaulis Simroth 1913 (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |    |--*L. comorensis (Fischer 1883) [=Vaginula comorensis] SS10
              |    `--L. alte (Férussac 1821) [incl. Vaginula leydigi Simroth 1889] SS10
              |--Vaginula TC89
              |    |--V. andersoniana Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |    |--V. birmanica Theobald 1864 TC89
              |    `--V. proxima Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              `--Leidyula Baker 1925 BP90
                   |--L. floridana BP90
                   |--L. kraussi BP90
                   |--L. moreleti BP90
                   `--L. sloanei BP90

Laevicaulis Simroth 1913 [incl. Eleutherocaulis Simroth 1913, Meisenheimeria Grimpe & Hoffmann 1924; Meisenheimeriinae] SS10

Onchidiidae [Abranchiatae, Amphipneustea, Onchidia, Onchidiida, Onchodoridae, Oncidiacea, Oncidiadae, Opisthotremata] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II, pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295–359.

Scaphopoda

Antalis vulgaris, copyright Malcolm Storey.


Belongs within: Rostroconchia.
Contains: Siphonodentaliidae, Dentalium.

The Scaphopoda, tusk shells, are a group of benthic molluscs with a tubular shell that live buried in the sediment, feeding on micro-organisms. In members of the Dentalioida, the shell generally tapers evenly, whereas Gadilida commonly have the shell constricted toward the mouth. The two lineages also differ in foot morphology: Dentalioida have the foot with an encircling sheath that is expanded laterally and interrupted dorsally; Gadilida have the foot simple and vermiform, or distally expanded into a symmetrical disc (Ludbrook 1960).

Characters (from Ludbrook 1960): Marine, bilaterally symmetrical mollusks protected by an external elongate, tubular, tapering, calcareous shell, open at both ends and generally somewhat curved. Concave side of shell dorsal, convex side ventral; aperture or anterior opening larger, apex or posterior opening simple or variously slit or notched, some forms with terminal pipe. Shell substance of three distinct layers. Shell secreted by mantle of same shape, larger (anterior) opening of which is contracted by muscular thickening of mantle, giving egress to long conical foot; smaller (posterior) opening serving as outlet for organic waste and genital products. Mouth furnished with radula, borne on cylindrical snout and surrounded by rosette of lobes; a cluster of threadlike, distally enlarged appendages known as “captacula” springing from its base. No eyes or tentacles; otocysts present. Liver 2-lobed, symmetrical; gut strongly convoluted, anus ventral and somewhat anterior, kidney openings near it. Heart rudimentary; no gills, respiration performed by general integument. Nervous system with well-developed ganglia united by commissures. Gonad simple, sexes separate, reproduction without copulation.

<==Scaphopoda [Cirrhobranchiata, Lateribranchiata]
    |  i. s.: Calstevenus Yancey 1973 PR79
    |         Paleodentalium Gentile 1974 PR79
    |         Quasidentalium Gentile 1974 PR79
    |         Throopella Greger 1933 [Throopellidae] L60
    |           `--*T. typa Greger 1933 L60
    |--Gadilida MG-H11
    |    |--Siphonodentaliidae L60
    |    `--Entalinidae MG-H11
    |         |--Dischides Jeffreys 1867 MG-H11, L60 [=Discides Sacco 1897 L60]
    |         |    `--*D. politus (Wood 1842) [=Ditrupa polita, Cadulus (*Dischides) politus] L60
    |         |--Entalina Monterosato 1872 GO06, L60 [incl. Eudentalium Cotton & Godfrey 1933 L60]
    |         |    |--*E. tetragona (Brocchi 1814) [=Dentalium tetragonum] L60
    |         |    `--E. quinquangularis L60
    |         |--Bathoxiphus Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 MG-H11, L60
    |         |    |--*B. ensiculus (Jeffreys 1877) [=Dentalium ensiculus] L60
    |         |    `--B. colmani (Palmer 1974) MG-H11
    |         `--Gadila Gray 1847 MG-H11, L60 [incl. Helonyx Stimpson 1865 L60, Loxoporus Jeffreys 1883 L60; Gadilinae]
    |              |--*G. gadus (Montagu 1803) [=Dentalium gadus, Cadulus (*Gadila) gadus] L60
    |              |--G. braziliensis (Henderson 1920) S11
    |              `--G. tolmiei SW11
    `--Dentalioida [Dentalida] PR79
         |--Dentaliidae MG-H11
         |    |--Dentalium GO06
         |    |--Prodentalium Young 1942 L60
         |    |    `--*P. raymondi Young 1942 L60
         |    |--Plagioglypta Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 L60
         |    |    |--*P. undulata (Münster 1844) [=Dentalium undulatum] L60
         |    |    `--P. iowaensis [=Coleolus iowaensis] PR79
         |    `--Fissidentalium Fischer 1885 MG-H11, DK08 [incl. Schizodentalium Sowerby 1894 L60]
         |         |--*F. ergasticum Fischer 1885 [=Dentalium (*Fissidentalium) ergasticum] L60
         |         |--F. mawsoni (Ludbrook 1956) [=Dentalium (Fissidentalium) mawsoni] DK08
         |         |--F. shirleyae Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
         |         `--F. zelandicum (Sowerby 1860) P61
         `--+--Fustiaria Stoliczka 1868 GO06, L60 [Fustiariidae]
            |    |--*F. circinata (Sowerby 1823) [=Dentalium circinatum] L60
            |    `--F. rubescens GO06
            `--+--Antalis Adams & Adams 1854 GO06, L60 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--*A. entalis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Dentalium entalis] L60
               |    |--A. diarrhox (Watson 1879) [=Dentalium (Antalis) diarrhox] P61
               |    |--A. glaucarena (Dell 1953) [=Dentalium (Antalis) glaucarena] P61
               |    |--A. nana (Hutton 1873) (see below for synonymy) P61
               |    |--A. pilsbryi GO06
               |    |--A. suteri (Emerson 1954) [=Dentalium (Antalis) suteri; incl. D. arenarium Suter 1907] P61
               |    `--A. vulgaris GR98
               `--Laevidentalidae PR79
                    |--Pseudantalis Monterosato 1884 PR79, L60
                    |    `--*P. rubescens (Deshayes 1825) [=Dentalium rubescens] L60
                    |--Rhabdus Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 GO06, L60
                    |    `--*R. rectius (Carpenter 1865) [=Dentalium rectius] L60
                    |--Rhytiodentalium Pojeta & Runnegar 1979 PR79
                    |    `--*R. kentuckyensis Pojeta & Runnegar 1979 PR79
                    `--Laevidentalium Cossmann 1888 MG-H11, S98
                         |--*L. incertum (Deshayes 1825) [=Dentalium incertum] S98
                         |--L. arnoldi Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
                         |--L. ecostatum (Kirk 1880) [=Dentalium (Laevidentalium) ecostatum] P61
                         |--L. longitrorsum (Reeve 1842) MG-H11
                         `--L. morganianum (Wilckens 1922) [=Dentalium (Laevidentalium) morganianum] F27

Antalis Adams & Adams 1854 GO06, L60 [incl. Entaliopsis Newton & Harris 1894 L60, Entalis Gray 1847 non Sowerby 1839 L60; Antalinae]

Antalis nana (Hutton 1873) [=Dentalium (Antalis) nanum; incl. D. huttoni Kirk 1880, D. marwicki Mestayer 1926] P61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: a search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481–488.

[L60] Ludbrook, N. H. 1960. Scaphopoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I37–I41. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PR79] Pojeta, J., Jr & B. Runnegar. 1979. Rhytiodentalium kentuckyensis, a new genus and new species of Ordovician scaphopod, and the early history of scaphopod mollusks. Journal of Paleontology 53 (3): 530–541.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SW11] Smith, S. A., N. G. Wilson, F. E. Goetz, C. Feehery, S. C. S. Andrade, G. W. Rouse, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn. 2011. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature 480: 364–367.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.